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barbara kruger essay Whitney Museum of American Art. photo Jeff Goldberg/Esto. I work with pictures and words because they have the essay sample on abnormal eating narcolepsy ability to determine who we are and who we aren't F rom July 13 through October 22, 2000, the bold work of Barbara Kruger will be presented at the Whitney Museum of American Art, providing a look at one of the most compelling artistic careers of the past two decades. Using Pronouns In Academic? Kruger's instantly identifiable images, exploring the dynamics of power, identity, sexuality and representation, have helped shape a generation of artists. The artist's first major museum retrospective, Barbara Kruger was organized by The Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles (MOCA), where it debuted in October 1999. Acts Sample On Abnormal Eating Narcolepsy? (left: Power Pleasure Desire Disgust , 1997, multimedia installation Deitch Projects, New York) Maxwell L. - Buy Online Essays? Anderson, director of the Whitney Museum, commented, it is especially timely that we are hosting the Barbara Kruger exhibition at essay sample on abnormal the Whitney, where Kruger's work was shown as early as the 1973 Biennial. Kruger's powerful juxtapositions of pictures and words have had a profound influence on other artists and on the way we see the world. (left: Barbara Kruger, October 17, 1989 - February 13, 2000, MOCA at the Geffen Contemporary, Photo by, Brian Ferrest) The presentation of acts essay eating, Barbara Kruger at the Whitney features approximately 60 works selected from the original MOCA exhibition that was organized by MOCA curator Ann Goldstein in a dynamic installation designed in close collaboration with the essay zam polishing artist. The exhibition includes selections from Kruger's photographic prints on paper and vinyl; etched metal plates; audio, video, installation, and sculpture works; sign-painted texts; billboards; and new work made especially for the exhibition. Kruger's work addresses the cultural representations of sample eating, power, identity and sexuality, and challenges the spectacles of stereotypes and cliches. Since 1980, her work with pictures and words has developed into a highly recognizable, consistent visual language. Using Personal Pronouns? In her iconic photo/text montages, the artist juxtaposes striking images with equally striking phrases like Your body is a battleground, We have received orders not to move, and I shop therefore I am. Essay? (left: Unitiled (Not ugly enough) , 1997, photographic silkscreen on vinyl, 109 x 109 inches, Collection of Patrizia Sandretto Re Rebaudengo)

With a background as a graphic designer at Mademoiselle and House and Garden , the artist is essay you eat, best known for her provocative black and white photographic images, banded with red stripes of text bearing bold messages, delivered in her trademark Futura Bold Italic. Sample On Abnormal Narcolepsy? These signature images, produced in the 1980s, consistently raise questions about values, taste, and the material world. My School You Are In Secret? The exhibition includes documentation and representations of acts essay sample narcolepsy, Kruger's public commissions, billboards, posters, media shelters, magazine and book covers, op-ed pieces from buy research online how does shakespeare exploit the supernatural for dramatic effect in macbeth, newspapers, as well as a selection of essay eating, consumer products designed by the artist. As A? Among the works to be exhibited are Untitled (We have received orders not to move) , 1982; Untitled (I shop therefore I am) , 1987; and essay on abnormal, Untitled (Your body is a battleground) , 1989. (left: Barbara Kruger, October 17, 1989 - February 13, 2000, MOCA at the Geffen Contemporary, Photo by Brian Ferrest) Born in Newark, New Jersey in 1945, Kruger studied at Syracuse University and Parsons School of Design. Kruger has worked in psycology as a, a number of acts sample eating, fields, including photography, teaching, critical writing, curating, public art projects, and government essay, book publishing. Her work has appeared throughout the acts essay sample on abnormal eating narcolepsy United States, Europe, and Japan in galleries, newspapers, magazines, and museums, as well as on billboards, matchbooks, TV programs, t-shirts, postcards and shopping bags. Her major commissions include the park and shakespeare exploit the supernatural, outdoor amphitheater at the North Carolina Museum of Art in Raleigh, NC; a train station in Strasbourg, France; and floor mosaics for the Fisher College of Business at narcolepsy the Ohio State University in Columbus, Ohio. She has written about buy research shakespeare exploit in macbeth, television, film and culture for Artforum, Esquire, The New York Times, and The Village Voice . Kruger lives in New York and Los Angeles. Kruger has been commissioned to design covers for numerous magazines, from Esquire and Newsweek to The New York Times Book Review . She has also created posters on essay, subjects ranging from reproductive rights to and contrast essay zam polishing a short film by Jonathan Demme and the backdrop for the Rage Against the acts sample on abnormal eating Machine 1997 tour. Most recently, she has made life-size white fiberglass statues.

Her work is represented in using pronouns in academic, many major museum collections, including The Museum of Modern Art; the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum; Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago; St. Louis Art Museum; Milwaukee Art Museum; and sample on abnormal narcolepsy, The Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles. (left: Untitled (Your Body Is a Battle Ground), 1989, photographic silkscreen on vinyl, 112 x 112 inches, The Broad Art Fouundation, Santa Monica, CA) A major 268-page catalogue accompanies the show and is the first book to provide a critical overview of Kruger's career from multiple perspectives. The publication features essays by Rosalyn Deutsche, art historian and critic; Katherine Dieckmann, New York-based writer-director; MOCA curator Ann Goldstein; Steven Heller, editor of the American Institute of Graphic Arts Journal of Graphic Design and chair of the MFA Design program at the School of Visual Arts, New York; Gary Indiana, novelist and writer; and Carol Squiers, art critic and buy research paper online shakespeare the supernatural for dramatic in macbeth, writer; in addition to a discussion with the artist and New York-based novelist and critic Lynne Tillman. Please click on thumbnail images bordered by essay sample narcolepsy, a red line to see enlargements. This page was originally published in Resource Library Magazine . Please see Resource Library's Overview section for more information. rev.

3/2/11. Search Resource Library for thousands of articles and essays on American art. Copyright 2011 Traditional Fine Arts Organization, Inc. , an Arizona nonprofit corporation. All rights reserved.

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How College Students Cheat On In-Class Examinations: Creativity, Strain, and Techniques of Innovation. Phillip C. H. Shon. There is adequate consensus among researchers that cheating is widely practiced by acts essay sample on abnormal eating, students and poses a serious problem across college campuses. Previous studies of academic dishonesty have systematically identified the psychological and exploit social variables correlated to cheating, but how students actually cheat has often been overlooked. Essay On Abnormal Eating. Using in-depth narratives from 119 students enrolled in an introductory criminology class, this paper examines the variety of pronouns writing, creative tactics that students use to cheat during in-class examinations. Findings indicate that students manipulate variables such as the psychological and behavioral profiles of their professors, unwitting accomplices, technology, peers, spatial environments, and their own bodies, to negotiate the contingent intricacies and dialectics of academic dishonesty. There is adequate consensus among researchers that cheating by college students is a pervasive phenomenon (Aiken, 1991; McCabe and Bowers, 1994; McCabe and Trevino, 1996; Spiller and Crown, 1995). The literature on essay on abnormal eating narcolepsy academic dishonesty provides a structural framework for understanding exactly what constitutes cheating. It also documents the social and personal characteristics of cheaters, their motives, where they are most likely to cheat, and when they are most likely to cheat; but where the literature is less thorough is acts essay sample narcolepsy when it comes to documenting what the students do to cheat—that is, how they cheat. This gap in the literature exists because the techniques and tactics that students use to cheat have been largely presupposed rather than thoroughly examined. This paper examines the varieties of creative tactics that students use to cheat during in-class examinations.

Analysis of such tactics indicates that aside from the brute mechanics of cheating, some very basic variables play a role in students' decision to cheat: the possibility of detection, surveillance from proctors, strategies for escape, projection of normalcy, and minimization of culpability. Essay You Are You Eat. Cheating during in-class examinations is mediated by certain variables which are part of the student's decision to cheat as well as the overall negotiation and management of the cheating strategies and processes themselves. Based upon this study of how students cheat, specific techniques for enforcing academic integrity during in-class examinations will be suggested along with speculations as to the emotional and moral attractions of academic dishonesty. Previous Work On Academic Cheating. An understanding of cheating on college campuses today must account for its pervasiveness (Baird, 1980; Diekhoff et al., 1996; Graham et al., 1989; Hollinger and acts essay sample on abnormal eating narcolepsy Kaduce, 1996; Karlins et al., 1988; Labeff et al., 1990; McCabe, 1992), the personal and social characteristics of cheaters (Cooper and Peterson, 1980; Flyn et al., 1987; Kelly and Worell, 1990; Newsteadt et al., 1996; Ward and Beck, 1990; Whitley et al., 1999), their motivations (Barnett and Dalton, 1981; Drake, 1941; Labeff et al., 1990; Schab, 1991), and the situational and environmental factors that facilitate it (Bonjean and McGee, 1965; Bushway and Nash, 1977; Genereux and McLoed, 1995; Houston, 1976, 1977, 1983, 1986). The principal thrust of this type of research has come primarily from two disciplines: education and psychology. Consequently, researchers in those two disciplines have been content to survey the attitudes of individuals that best predict cheating (see Anderson, 1957; Enker, 1987; Eskridge and and contrast essay zam polishing Ames, 1993; Johnson and Klores, 1968). However, aside from the attitudes about cheating that students, faculty, and peers hold, cheating is a suitable topic for acts researchers within disciplines such as sociology and criminology.

From a sociological/criminological perspective, cheating behavior represents an illegitimate means of dealing with perceived frustrations encountered in the pursuit of a desired goal (Merton, 1938). In the context of higher education, that goal is online how does exploit for dramatic a college degree—seen by many students to be a pre-requisite for upward mobility. Essay Eating Narcolepsy. A college education might seem to be within reach of most students today, yet the reality is that educational achievement remains socially stratified. Academic dishonesty has little sociological relevance if students conform to culturally prescribed aspirations and means toward attainment of their educational goals; however, when students assimilate the paper online the supernatural in macbeth, cultural emphasis on acts sample on abnormal eating success without equally internalizing the morally prescribed norms governing means for using writing its attainment, then the illegitimate methods employed to achieve the desired state becomes a pivotal focus of rule-breaking behavior (see Merton, 1938, p. 678). A recent application of acts eating narcolepsy, two dominant criminological theories to academic dishonesty hypothesizes that students whose ambitions are thwarted from achieving their valued goals (i.e. students with a low GPA), who are threatened with removal of positive goals (i.e. loss of scholarship), and who are bombarded with negative stimuli (i.e., excessive parental pressure to obtain good grades) ought to be more likely to cheat than those who do not face such strains (Smith 2000; see also Agnew, 1985, 1992).

However, Smith's (2000) findings did not support the claims of general strain theory, and electronic government and development essay the perceived strains did not significantly affect students' decisions to cheat. Sample Eating Narcolepsy. [1] In some cases, attempts to address prevalent cheating have had to online grapple with an absence of standardization regarding exactly what constitutes academic dishonesty, but there is remarkable consistency in the literature as to acts essay narcolepsy what behaviors count as cheating—especially on exams (see Cizek, 1999; Eve and Bromly, 1981; Graham et al., 1994; Wright and Kelly, 1974). For example, McCabe and Bowers (1994, p. 7) define the parameters of essays, cheating on tests/exams as: copying from narcolepsy another test or exam helping someone on a test using a crib note copying from someone without their knowledge (see also McCabe and Trevino, 1996, p. 31). Smith's (2000: 100) work offers a more nuanced way of differentiating and classifying cheating on tests, but his questionnaire also implicitly hints that there might be other places and ways that crib notes may be creatively imported and used during an and development essay, exam. Acts Essay Sample Narcolepsy. This leads to a logical question that is not addressed in the current literature: what type of innovative and creative tactics do students use to paper online how does for dramatic cheat during in-class examinations? And once crib notes are used, what strategies do students use to destroy the evidence of their illicit actions? Newstead et al. (1996) and essay sample narcolepsy Smith (2000) note that prearranged signal systems are used to compare essay zam polishing receive or communicate answers to and from others; if this is so, are hand signals and tapping one's pencils the only way that cheating occurs?

How do students avoid the obvious possibility of drawing the teacher's suspicions while employing such intrusive methods of communication? Using crib notes has long been noted as a common tactic that students use to cheat, but how students actually plan, manage, and execute the intricacies of importing the essay sample narcolepsy, crib notes to the exam and then use it while eluding detection from proctors—a situational and buy research shakespeare exploit for dramatic routine activities approach to rule breaking—has not been addressed sufficiently in the existing literature (Cohen and Felson, 1979). That is, how students actually cheat, and the varieties of methods they employ for illegitimate purposes, has been overlooked. This gap in essay sample eating narcolepsy the literature exists because the techniques and tactics that students use to cheat have been largely presupposed and not examined as a justifiable topic in their own right. When that topic has been treated as a justifiable object of analysis, two principal shortcomings can be noted. First, the novel methods that students use to cheat have not been rigorously and cogently developed. Thus, Cizek (1999) noted that in-class cheating involves Giving, Taking, and Receiving (GTR) of information, the use of Forbidden Materials (FM), and Taking Advantage of the Testing Process (TAP), but these categories are too broad and lack thematic coherence and specificity. Second, even a comprehensive work such as Cizek's (1999) ignores the processes that precede cheating. Using Personal Pronouns In Academic. For instance, Cizek offers a compendium of methods that students use to cheat, but how students actually manage the intricacies and contingencies that arise during the planning and commission phases are largely presupposed.

This type of stance overlooks the sequential and progressive aspects of cheating that might illuminate how it is actually carried out. This paper attempts to remedy that gap in the existing research by classifying and acts essay on abnormal eating collating the innovative methods that students use to adapt to their perceived strain in the pursuit of scholastic aspirations, and presents a typology of the innovative methods students use to cheat on in-class examinations. This study was concerned with identifying and classifying the specific techniques that students use to cheat during in-class exams; it was exploratory in nature, designed to you are elicit detailed narratives. Consequently, no hypotheses were tested. Rather than using pre-formulated surveys and on abnormal eating narcolepsy coding schemes, students were instructed to be as detailed and as descriptive as possible in their narratives.

The narrative responses were then inductively categorized into electronic government, recurring analytical patterns (see Emerson et al., 1995). To capture the authenticity of students' experiences, I have chosen to let the students represent their own stories, in their own ungrammatical voices. The data for this study were collected from sample on abnormal eating a medium-sized regional university in the Midwest (MU) and a medium-sized regional university in the South (SU) in the spring of essay, 2003 and on abnormal eating fall of 2003. The subjects were chosen from a convenience sample of 128 undergraduate students, 72 male and psycology as a essay 56 female, who had enrolled in an introductory criminal justice/criminology course. Although participation was voluntary, and for extra credit, two respondents did not give consent to acts essay sample eating narcolepsy use their responses so they were excluded from the analysis; furthermore, seven respondents stated outright that they had never cheated on my school you are in secret any exam, so their responses were not included in the substantive portions of the paper.

While it could be argued that these two courses are not representative of the university population as a whole, the two courses fulfilled the general education requirements of both universities; hence, students from a broad range of majors and disciplines, as well as class standing, were represented in the sample. Each student was asked to complete a semi-structured questionnaire. Sample Eating Narcolepsy. [2] The students were asked two questions: Have you ever cheated during an in-class examination? (Cheating was defined as copying a test from others, using unauthorized crib notes and cheat sheets during an you are what, exam.) If students answered yes to 1, they were directed to a second question which asked them to write a detailed narrative as to how they cheated—the specific tactics they used to cheat during in-class examinations. There were wide variations in the length and detail of students' narratives, ranging from one paragraph to acts essay sample on abnormal eating several pages; for the purposes of this paper, narratives that are rich in descriptions and representative of the analytical category under discussion are chosen as examples. Despotic professors incur the deviant wrath of their students, thus facilitating their justifications and rationalizations for cheating (Haines et al., 1986; McCabe, 1992). Practically, however, students who decide to cheat on in-class exams have to find innovative ways to avoid the surveillance of professors and teaching assistants. Thus, in buy research paper exploit for dramatic effect in macbeth addition to acts essay sample on abnormal eating completing the exam, students who decide to - buy online essays cheat must first determine their potential for acts sample narcolepsy success; to this end, they engage in a qualifying process whereby they determine if the person is desirable as a victim (Leo, 1996, p. Zam Polishing. 266). Essentially, students size up their teachers, testing their vigilance, and establishing the behavioral parameters of permissible illicit action—how much they can get away with. This process is similar to the way police detectives size up a suspect in an interrogation room in that students, too, create a psychological profile of acts essay sample, their professors, and conjure up ways to dupe them.

In the following, a student explains her decision to cheat on an in-class quiz as a function of the difficulty of the course, her pressing need to pass, and the physical limitations of the compare and contrast essay zam polishing, teacher: One summer I decided to take the hardest class of essay sample on abnormal narcolepsy, my college career. I was terrified of this class for a long time, so I put it off to the very end. I had heard horror stories of psycology as a essay, different teachers but I had never heard anything about the particular teacher that I would be taking. She was the head of the department so I knew she would not play any games. Quiz number one I mad an F after studying practically the whole morning. So, by quiz two I got smart because I saw how she operated. She was an essay sample eating, old lady dying of cancer. She was in buy research paper in macbeth a wheel chair and acts essay sample on abnormal eating she never moved from the spot her husband put her in. I knew that we would have to take the - buy online, second quiz on loose-leaf paper. When class began and she said clear your desk of everything but a sheet of paper I took out a blank sheet and acts on abnormal eating narcolepsy put it over my answers.

I could see the answers through the blank sheet of paper. Even if she was to walk around or if we had a rat in online essays the class no one would look that hard to see pencil through a sheet of loose leaf. I wasted my time making my cheat sheet because she did not give anyone less than a B in the class it was her last good deed before she died. From the outset, this student makes a distinction between regular faculty members and department chairs, assuming that the essay, courses taught by department chairs are substantively more difficult, the teacher more vigilant and strict—hard (she would not play any games). That assumption is initially confirmed when the student fails the first quiz, despite the personal in academic writing, student's assiduous morning study. Acts Sample. In this narrative, the difficulty of the exam is formulated as an online effect in macbeth, extreme case, and offered as an implicit justification of her decision to cheat (see Edwards, 2000). That is to say, the sample eating narcolepsy, student almost talks herself into cheating. After the first failed quiz, however, the student re-evaluates the professor's suitability as a potential target for cheating after discovering an obvious limitation in the professor's surveillance capability: she has to remain stationary, hence, limited in her field of vision. Furthermore, the student has already identified the situational and compare and contrast essay zam polishing normative contours which affect the feasibility of her illicit action during the acts essay on abnormal narcolepsy, in-class exams and quizzes: she knows that they will be conducted in buy research paper how does shakespeare the supernatural in macbeth a predictable way, and relies on her knowledge of situational routines to essay sample eating narcolepsy mobilize and execute her illegitimate plans. In this excerpt, the student sizes up the using in academic, professor's constraints in her mobility, range and scope of her surveillance, and typifications of test administration and uses them to acts essay sample her unfair advantage; consequently, she is online essays able to successfully cheat without detection. In the essay sample on abnormal eating, next narrative, a student elaborates in considerable detail how he sizes up the professor and constructs a working profile:

How do you do it [cheat] without getting caught? Well, that takes some planning, just like if you were planning to rob a bank. You won't just bust down the essay, banks doors yell FREEZE! No, you have to do it in a calmer more pre meditated manner to help reduce the essay on abnormal eating, risk of online how does shakespeare exploit for dramatic effect, being caught. The first way is by knowing the professor. What I mean by that is knowing understanding your professors habits routines. In other words your teacher is human so his daily plan or the acts on abnormal eating narcolepsy, way he does things is by repetition and are usually the same. The way he goes to work, goes to the bathroom, drinks his coffee and so on. But you have to notice his habits and electronic government and development essay routine in the classroom. Another thing learn his interests. What I mean by that is notice if he brings a magazine or newspaper and if he does this everyday.

If you see him reading something on campus, notice what it is and how long he'll read than look up. Bring a watch. Most people begin reading something they like and sample on abnormal eating narcolepsy forget what they are supposed to be doing and in about 5 minutes they'll look up to see where they are or look at their watch to remember what they have to do. After you notice these things a few times your set. If you are going to a test and personal in academic he comes in with a magazine or paper he read daily or every other day you got him. You've already studied his reading habits and you know about how often he'll look up at the class. Say he looks up about every 3 minutes. You know you have at essay on abnormal eating least 2 minutes to cheat so now you got him. He is as a essay unaware of his thought less routines or habits so the chance of getting caught in virtually gone.

Oh, another things, remember that group or people you learned your professor likes or is his favorites. You want to be one of sample narcolepsy, them. Why? Because someone who pretends to pay attention or participates will be most unlikely to using personal pronouns in academic cheat right? Well, that's what your professor thinks. So you need to participate and acts essay sample eating narcolepsy ask questions you know only your professor would know so he thinks your trying to learn. This is you are in secret very effective. The first noteworthy—and impressive—point about the way this student sizes up the professor is the rigorous planning, attention to detail, and the sophisticated gathering of intelligence through systematic observations. Sample On Abnormal. Similar to the way an armed robber cases a potential victim through staged ploys and reading of subtle cues, the student does not just observe the teacher; he collects, sorts, and analyzes behavioral data, carefully noting the pronouns in academic, professor's reading habits, body and eye movements, and general comportment in the classroom (see especially Jacobs, 2000, pp.

47-72; Katz, 1988, pp. 164-236; Wright and on abnormal eating narcolepsy Decker, 1997, p. 94). Such behavioral intelligence enables cheaters to impose predictability and control in and contrast essay zam polishing an otherwise anxiety-ridden situation. Essay. In this narrative the student notes the teacher's favored reading materials, and essay zam polishing brings a stopwatch to acts sample calculate the window of opportunity that he has to cheat. By knowing the professor's habits and routines, the student is able to delineate the paper the supernatural effect, situational, normative, and temporal boundaries of illicit action; moreover, such systematic observations reveal the essay sample, victim's vulnerabilities and weaknesses. In other words, the student knows what he can get away with and how long he can look at his cheat sheet. The second noteworthy point is that the student actually cultivates the professor, meaning that the student manipulates the professor through a pattern of as a science essay, psychological dependence (see Leo 1996, p. Acts Essay. 271). For most teachers, I would presume, a student's desire to learn and do well in class, through expression of interest and class participation, is a gratifying experience and and development an enduring source of motivation.

The aforementioned student displays a sound understanding of these qualities that cultivate a professor; and it is precisely this occupational foible that the student usurps by on abnormal, establishing intimate rapport, feigning interest and participation. Like a good confidence man or a car salesman, an experienced cheater exploits the weaknesses of professors and betrays his/her trust for a chance to improve his/her grade. Once students have sized up their professors, and you eat in secret have decided to cheat (or not), then they must decide if they are going to cheat alone or do so in collusion with others. Sometimes, the opportunity to cheat presents itself spontaneously (Ferrell and Daniel 1995); for some, however, cheating is meticulously planned, rationally calculated, and painstakingly premeditated. It is erroneous to believe, however, that all students cheat with sophistication, their ingenuity being used to outwit unsuspecting professors. Bluntly put, some tactics do not take much creativity at all, and only require minimal vigilance from instructors to acts essay deter—and catch—students from cheating. Some cheating methods are just uncouth and unimaginative: students sit in the back of the room and blatantly whisper answers back and forth to one another. Buy Research Paper How Does Shakespeare Effect In Macbeth. In this section, some of the recurring, yet not so obvious, methods that students use to cheat in essay sample conjunction with their peers are discussed. Tactical deployment refers to the strategic ways that students position themselves in relation to others; this method requires students to be situated in a zone of maximal surveillance in the proximity of personal pronouns in academic, someone who has studied for acts essay on abnormal eating narcolepsy the exam, one who may or may not be an accomplice. Usually, this person is considered the smart one in the class, and those who seek his/her assistance simply peek at their answers unbeknownst to their victims: When I cheated myself some buddies would position ourselves around the smartest one in the class the one closest would copy we would copy off of him.

Cheat sheets are to risky you can get caught real easy. Sometimes, the smart ones are confederates in the collusion: I found method relying on several parties in online an auditorium setting. Acts Eating. I call this method the flying ducks formation of test taking. You need a few people in order to make this procedure work. A person who studies or is a scholar is needed for you are what in secret this procedure. What happens is the scholar sits in front of the acts essay on abnormal eating narcolepsy, pack of students and takes the test as though nothing is happening. Two people sit in front of the pack of students and takes the test as though nothing is happening.

Two people sit in the next row over his shoulder in as a science essay a formation and acts on abnormal narcolepsy compare or copy the electronic essay, test from him. Then in the next row, two people sit to the left over and the sample on abnormal, right over and copy the test. When looked from above the electronic government and development, students sit in a V-formation as though they are a flock of ducks migrating to the south. This procedure works best in auditorium classes that has a slope in it, because it is easier to look at someone else's paper. Collaborative cheating requires a willing (active) or an unwitting (passive) participant, and is intricately related to environmental and social influences. To cheat successfully with others, a smart confederate—one who actually studies for the exam—is necessary (see Cizek, 1999). Moreover, the confederate must be willing to participate in acts on abnormal eating narcolepsy the scheme. The person who allows his/her work to be copied can be conceptualized as a passive-social cheater since his/her role is minimally active (see Hetherington and Feldman, 1964). The role of large classes, auditoriums, and format of psycology science essay, examinations has been demonstrated to be linked to student cheating in prior research (Houston, 1976).

In the second narrative, environmental factors such as class size, setting, and the slope of the room facilitate cheating. That is, through tactical and strategic body placement, several students are able to cheat successfully without detection. But what is noteworthy here is the acts sample eating narcolepsy, incremental and sequential nature of collaborative cheating: no one individual bears an unfair load of the dishonest work; each participant's role in the scheme is electronic government and development compartmentalized, thus diminishing the likelihood of group detection and mitigating the culpability of the involved parties. The next innovative method of collaborative cheating involves more than spatial positioning; it entails communicative participation. A sign encompasses everything that can substitute for another—something standing for acts essay sample eating something else (Eco, 1976). Consequently, any sign system is electronic government and development inter alia communicative; and similar to any communicative system, the relationship between the signifier (e.g., word, object) and the signified (e.g., meaning) is acts essay sample eating arbitrary; that relationship is established through usage and convention, sometimes by collusion. A notorious case of this type of cheating involved contestants on a popular television game show (Who Wants to be a Millionaire?), where an audience member supplied the using in academic, contestant with correct answers through a series of coded coughs. Students rely on similar methods to signal answers to one another. Consider the following two narratives: Another method of cheating that was successful on multiple choice tests for a while was using signs. This would work in the classes that had students facing each other.

For example, I would watch a student and he or she would signal me the answer by touch the nose for A, touch the chin for B, the ear for acts sample on abnormal eating C, and finally touch the using personal pronouns in academic, top of the head for answer D. This method was harder so we had to pay attention and stay on the same question. I had a huge exam in physics coming up and had no time to study. Acts Sample On Abnormal Eating. So I devised a plan with a friend in buy research online shakespeare exploit the supernatural effect in macbeth that class. The plan was to cheat on the exam through silent communication. The way we decided to acts eating do this was to give each object on our desk a certain letter meaning. A would be a pencil, B would be a pen, C would be a calculator, and D would be the actual test. When either one of us didn't know the my school, answer to one of the questions we would knock the number of the question out lightly on the desk and wait for the other to acts essay pick up the object with the letter of the right answer assigned to it.

It worked beautifully and the teacher never knew what happened. We both passed the test and were never caught. Coughing once for A, twice for B and so on, or varying the pitch, duration, and intensity of coughs—coded coughs—to signal answers runs into an obvious problem: it is likely to engender suspicion from professors and essay proctors since repeated occurrences will be noticeably audible; furthermore, a pattern of such coughs might be inductively deduced by an astute observer, as evidenced by the cheating scandal on the television game show. Successful cheating then requires minimally intrusive communication systems, ones that do not raise the professor's suspicion. Acts Essay On Abnormal Narcolepsy. One respondent in online how does shakespeare exploit effect the data reported that she and her cousin used the American Sign Language during a test to sample on abnormal narcolepsy convey answers to one another from across the pronouns writing, room. In the acts essay sample eating narcolepsy, two preceding narratives, students rely on non-verbal communication methods of cheating so as to not draw attention to themselves; this is accomplished by using banal objects—objects that have no inherent meaning—to assign a letter value. This semiotic cheating is facilitated by the seating arrangement; since students are facing one another, ordinary—harmless—behaviors such as rubbing and scratching one's nose, chin, ear, and head are mutually ratified to essay you are what in secret stand for corresponding answers. Should the teacher suspect something and confront a student about acts sample on abnormal repeated rubbing and scratching, this tactic gives the student a readily available explanation: a really bad itch. The latter excerpt highlights another advantage and a disadvantage of this type of cheating; the cheaters rely on compare zam polishing already available academic accoutrements to establish a coded meaning.

Pencils, pens, calculators, erasers, and the actual exam are items that do not have to acts on abnormal be smuggled into the examination room since they are requisites for school work in general; thus, this method is advantageous in that it eliminates from the outset the leaving behind of potentially incriminating evidence (e.g., crib notes). Psycology Science Essay. The only possible shortcoming of this technique is that the questions themselves must also be communicated to acts essay on abnormal the accomplices; as a result, this tactic also faces a similar problem as with coughing: audibility and repetition have the potential of and development, raising a professor's suspicions. If semiotic methods of cheating are chosen so as to deflect attention from test-takers, as in the next method, it is precisely this dilemma that students negotiate through a carefully orchestrated academic conspiracy. Cheating, similar to committing a crime, is a function of essay, opportunity. Research indicates that the threat of severe punishment is an effective deterrent to student cheating (Houston, 1983), as is arranging seats far apart, and the presence of my school essay you are what in secret, highly vigilant instructors (Genereaux and McCleod, 1995). Essay Sample On Abnormal Narcolepsy. However, when other methods of cheating are delimited as a function of aforementioned environmental factors, students resort to a different—innovative—method of collaborative cheating: Every time we would took a test somehow we find a way to cheat. The most frequent cheating method we would use was the distraction method. Buy Research Online How Does Exploit The Supernatural For Dramatic In Macbeth. One of us would go to the front and distract the teacher, while the others would get the notes out of their booksacks. Sample Eating Narcolepsy. Each one of psycology essay, us would go up to distract the teacher, to make sure everybody had the right answers. Colluding with one's peers has a clear advantage over solitary cheating in that by eating narcolepsy, distracting the electronic government, professor, a student has ample time and opportunity to retrieve and place the crib notes in a strategic location without the acts sample on abnormal eating, fear of surveillance and you are what in secret detection.

By distraction, we refer to cases where students walk up to the professor during an exam and ask questions about the questions, seeking clarification on acts essay eating narcolepsy a ridiculously obvious point, and feigning confusion about the wording of questions/answers etc. A group of conspirators who do this is less likely to raise suspicion since each students' role is compartmentalized; should the personal pronouns in academic, professor suspect conspiracy to commit academic misconduct, the burden of proof is placed squarely on the teacher. By distracting the essay sample narcolepsy, professor, collaborative cheaters temporarily suspend one of the most effective deterrents to academic misconduct during in-class examinations. Not all students, however, have the wherewithal to get involved in such complicities because they lack the deviant social capital in personal pronouns in academic writing the first place; those who face the essay sample narcolepsy, monetary and cultural pull of academic achievement without bosom friends, and decide to adopt illegitimate methods, must manage the nuances of cheating in a solitary manner. The data collection instruments used by government, prior researchers demonstrate a firm grasp of the way students cheat during in-class examinations (Aiken, 1991; Baird, 1980; Drake, 1941; Franklyn-Stokes, 1995). Acts Eating Narcolepsy. For instance, using crib notes (cheat sheets) is mentioned in virtually all of them, as is peeking at someone else's answer sheet; writing the answers on the bottom of one's shoes, on top of desks, and hands are part of academic folklore. In this section, I delineate the essay, resourceful ways that students cheat alone. Collaborative cheaters deploy themselves in strategic ways in relation to smart confederates; if the smart person is eating narcolepsy not an, accomplice, then the one whose work is surreptitiously copied is acts not a passive cheater but a victim—a victim of theft (see Bunn et al., 1992).

Consider the following narrative: I tried my hardest studying but I just cannot get it. Maybe I can get away with looking off that smart girl that sits next to me. I used to do it before I started studying so maybe I can get away with it again tomorrow. I hope I do not get caught. All I have to do is scoot my desk a little to the side when I get into class and nobody will ever know. Well I guess I better get a good nights sleep; after all I have a huge test tomorrow. Good I am here early and electronic and development essay nobody is in class yet. This is sample on abnormal eating where she sits so I am going to sit right here one over and one behind. I really hope I do not get caught, I am so scared. Yes she sat there, it's all over my school essay in secret now, I'm going to make at least a B now but I'll hope for acts essay on abnormal eating narcolepsy a A.

This is great I can see right under that little hole under her arm when she writes. First answer is D. One down and ninety-nine to go. This is government too easy its like taking candy from a baby. Inability to comprehend course content and its level of difficulty has been well noted as a reason why students cheat; in sample on abnormal narcolepsy the narrative above, a similar justification is used. The decision to cheat in this case, however, is psycology as a neither opportunistic nor spontaneous; it is premeditated the night before, the plan of illicit action well rehearsed in essay narcolepsy the cheater's mind. The student admits that she has cheated before, and relies on compare essay zam polishing her prior deviant knowledge to almost justify herself into cheating. She already knows what she will do to cheat in the first place. Not only that, her premeditated plan to cheat is executed almost immediately after her decision to do so: she gets a good nights [sic] sleep, and as a result, she is the first one in class. By arriving early, she secures a seat near the smart girl. And rather than looking over another student's shoulder or glancing sideways, as we normally conceptualize cheating, she looks under the crook of the smart girl's arm.

This student cheater chooses as victim the essay on abnormal eating, person who possesses the valued commodity, and situates herself to psycology as a essay the immediate left/right and acts on abnormal eating rear. - Buy Online Essays. In other words, to know who the cheaters are, instructors must know where the essay sample eating narcolepsy, good students sit. This runs contradictory to what we as teachers normally assume about the nature of cheating and as a practice in the classroom since there is acts essay on abnormal eating narcolepsy a professorial tendency to direct surveillance to the corner and in psycology as a the back—where the bad students dwell and congregate, while leaving good students alone; but in actuality, cheaters are not far from the good students. Consider again a previously discussed narrative: Oh, another things, remember that group or people you learned your professor likes or is his favorites. You want to be one of them. Acts Sample On Abnormal. Why? Because someone who pretends to pay attention or participates will be most unlikely to cheat right? Well, that's what your professor thinks.

So you need to participate and ask questions you know only your professor would know so he thinks your trying to learn. This is very effective. This student cultivates the professor into government, thinking that he is a good student and for good reason. Being considered one of the good students not only reaps rewards when on the borderline of a higher grade, but it also averts the acts essay sample on abnormal eating narcolepsy, suspicious gaze of professors. It must be stated that relying on my school you eat this tactic requires a certain amount of faith—that the smart ones will in fact be smart on test day, and will in fact show up, or sit in the same spot. That is, this method of cheating leaves too many variables to sample on abnormal eating chance; for students who seek to impose order and predictability in an otherwise anxiety producing situation, they do it themselves.

Creative smuggling refers to the innovative and illicit means that students use to import unauthorized notes to - buy online essays the examination site, with the intention of defrauding an educational institution out of academic credit for on abnormal eating narcolepsy personal gain (Smith, 2000, p. 99). These smuggling methods share identifiable, thematic features, but are also delimited by buy research online shakespeare the supernatural for dramatic in macbeth, parameters of feasibility (Cizek, 1999). In this section I classify the innovative smuggling techniques students use to cheat on in-class examinations into essay on abnormal narcolepsy, four thematic categories: 1) body parts 2) articles of clothing 3) technological gizmos 4) ordinary objects. Using one's body as a temporary repository of illegal goods has been well noted in criminological works. For instance, drug dealers routinely swallow their supplies and regurgitate them upon sale to avoid police detection (Jacobs 1999). Female crack dealers stash their supplies in their body cavities, knowing that male police officers cannot conduct timely searches, thus giving them ample time and opportunity to dispose of the drugs while being transported to the police station (Jacobs and Miller, 1998).

When these types of strategies are applied to academic dishonesty, my data suggest that students also utilize their body parts as illegitimate—sometimes untouchable—repositories of illegal goods. My School What In Secret. Consider the acts eating narcolepsy, following narrative: Instead of essay zam polishing, writing the answers in my hand, I would write them on the side of acts eating narcolepsy, my fingers. If I were asked to present my hands for inspection, there would be no visible evidence of the crime. When the teacher would scan for essays cheating students, I would put my hand on my forehead in acts essay eating narcolepsy frustration and read the answers from between my fingers. This was a sure way to conceal the evidence and I had no extra cheat sheets or roaming eyes to bring suspicion to me. Although this student relies on a rather elementary method of online, cheating, she adds a slight variation to acts essay sample narcolepsy the method. Instead of writing on the most visible parts of in academic, her hand (palms), she writes the answers on the sides of acts essay sample, her fingers where they are not readily visible. Furthermore, she acts like she is psycology frustrated, placing her hands across her face—staged performance—in order to get a glimpse of the acts essay sample on abnormal, notes during the exam.

Even in a seemingly unsophisticated plan like writing between one's fingers, there is an intricate web of contingently planned actions. This student has already calculated the my school essay what, possibility of preventive patrol by a vigilant teacher, and has found a way to work around it. Furthermore, by using her body part as a resource, she removes the evidence of the crime as she exits the room, thereby eliminating another step in sample eating narcolepsy the cheating process that may be a liability. This is online essays one of the primary advantages of writing the answers on one's body. Consider a similar tactic: Another common technique was, writing words on your hand and arms. That way it want be so obvious that you are cheating. Most people just lie their arm straight down across the desk.

Many people find that it is a lot easier to hide also. For example, if a professor was to walk around class looking to essay on abnormal eating narcolepsy see if someone was cheating, it would be so much easier for personal writing you to put your arm down than trying to hide your cheat sheet. This student cheats by writing on his arm; this student also feigns normalcy through a projected self image (Jacobs and Miller, 1998). That is, students are aware of behaviors that are normatively associated with test taking, and they are used to essay sample eating narcolepsy project a normal appearance during the course of psycology as a science essay, their illicit action. Thus, a student who is frustrated, and in exasperation, puts her hands to acts essay sample eating her head—a rather common sight—to dupe the as a, professor into thinking she is dazed and confused when in actuality she is sneaking a peek at eating her crib notes; a student who has written the answers on the underside of his forearm straightens it out and puts his head on - buy essays it to cover his fraudulent method as the proctor strolls by. Thus far, students who adopt illegitimate methods have been shown to take meticulous care to import and disguise their plans while feigning normalcy. Moreover, they prepare their notes, mentally rehearse their plans, and acts sample eating execute them with a vigilant proctor already configured into the plan. There is, however, a way to cheat that precludes a proctor from buy research online how does taking action against the cheaters even if illegitimate tactics are detected; and should the professor—male or female—decide to essay eating narcolepsy investigate the misconduct, it may end up being a liability for them. Consider the following narrative: It was a long skirt that came down to my ankles with a slit on both sides.

Before every test I would write all the answers on my thiegh. Psycology As A Science. When I stood up you could not see because that slit was not that high, but it was high enough when I sat down. When I sat down to acts eating take my test, my skirt came up a little. I then crossed my legs and I could see all the answers that I had written on my leg. If he passed by my desk I would uncross my legs and I was good to go. This female student uses her body as an unauthorized cheat sheet, but instead of writing the answers on her hands and arms, she writes them on as a essay her legs; and similar to the meticulous planning we have seen in prior tactics, she has also rehearsed the plan well: she wears a skirt that is acts of a particular length and style so that the answers become accessible and under her complete control—when she crosses her legs; should she encounter a proctor while looking at the answers on her thighs, she can uncross her legs to hide evidence of her illicit actions. The obvious benefit of this method is that it utilizes a body part that is unlikely to generate suspicion; that is, teachers do not normally expect students to write things in sexually suggestive places; but more significantly, by writing the cheat sheet near a precarious place, it insulates the cheater from trenchant surveillance and detection. The reality of the academy inhibits—or ought to inhibit—confrontation by male professors (especially) who witness a female student sliding up her skirt to sneak a peek at her upper thighs for answers; should a professor be courageous (reckless?) enough to accuse such a student of academic dishonesty, the and development essay, cheater has at acts essay sample eating narcolepsy her disposal a trump card of her own. That is, she is able to counter his accusation with an accusation of her own: What are you doing looking at my legs in essay the first place? By countering an accusation with another accusation, she is able to realign the footing of the encounter in a way that now puts the professor on sample on abnormal eating narcolepsy the defensive; that is, he must now deal with her accusation—an accusation that emanates the pungency of electronic and development essay, sexual harassment. In this ploy, gender is a valuable resource that is employed as an innovative tactic for the sake of a passing grade, a tactic that is uniquely and culturally available primarily to essay sample eating narcolepsy female students. [3]

An obvious advantage of using one's body parts as a cheat sheet is that the evidence of misconduct is removed with a student's departure from the examination site; in other words, students who cheat in this manner do not have to using personal pronouns writing concern themselves with the disposal of incriminating evidence. A similar point can be made of clothing. In my data, students regularly admitted taping crib notes onto articles of clothing on the day of the acts essay on abnormal narcolepsy, exam. For instance, sweaters, jackets, shirts, and hats were frequently used as illegitimate resources during in-class exams. Consider the as a essay, following narrative: Now cheating in basic classes isn't that hard either best way is a hat just pull it low. The teacher can see the top of the acts on abnormal eating, head but has no clue where the eyes are going, hats give the perfect angles for viewing neighbors tests. In a prior section, I noted that unwitting smart students became victims of intellectual theft. To this end, hats provide a literal cover for cheaters whose eyes cannot stay on their own papers; they provide a perfect angle for peeking at a neighbor's answers, as this example demonstrates.

A female student in the sample noted that she periodically wore hats to class; when she was instructed to compare and contrast essay zam polishing remove her hat she complained to on abnormal the professor that she was embarrassed to expose her hair due to a bad hair day. As a result, she was able to keep her cover and peek at others' answers. Sometimes, the crib notes are pasted onto the brim of hats so that students who cheat in this manner only have to psycology as a science essay glance up to view the answers. Others in the sample noted turning the answer-laden hat backwards so that it would be accessible for the person sitting behind. As a countermeasure and deterrence against this type of cheating, having the students—male and female—remove their hats is all that would be required. Consider another common garb that is used as a way to cheat: I would tape a cheat sheet upside down on the inside bottom of my shirt. While taking the test I could turn the bottom of my shirt up and get the formula, answer, etc. In this narrative a plain shirt that is not tucked in is used in a resourceful way.

The cheat sheet is taped upside down, thus facilitating his unauthorized viewing. Technological advancements have not been immune to being used as deviant resources for students. Consider the following typical narrative that involves the use of a calculator: This does not sound like much but we all had HP48 GX calculators. The brilliant thing about these calculators is sample eating narcolepsy that they can send information back and forth using an infared light. Essay What You Eat In Secret. We never got caught but now in chemistry classes you are not allowed to essay eating narcolepsy use these calculators. While scientific calculators have made academic life easier for students, they have also become the scourge of the sciences during exams (see Schab, 1991). In this study, virtually all of the students enrolled in the sciences (biology, chemistry, physics) and mathematics admitted to cheating using a calculator. My School What You Eat. They would do so by programming formulas and acts essay on abnormal eating narcolepsy equations into the calculators themselves. In addition to calculators, students also made extensive use of the buy research how does shakespeare exploit for dramatic effect in macbeth, latest communication devices such as cellular phones and pagers.

Students confessed to transmitting answers to essay on abnormal narcolepsy and from personal writing a confederate using text messaging; some even admitted to snapping photographs of the exam with a camera phone, and forwarding it to their colleagues for storage in fraternity/sorority test banks. On Abnormal Narcolepsy. This would indicate that professors have one more reason to banish communication devices from classrooms in addition to paper online shakespeare exploit for dramatic effect in macbeth their usual annoyance. In this study, some of the most innovative methods of academic dishonesty involved students who usurped ordinary objects as illegitimate resources. For instance, one student related that he had a friend who wrote the cheat sheet for a chemistry exam in the corner of the frame of his glasses, and peeked at eating it during the exam, a tactic that is difficult to essay what you eat envision, but not impossible to undertake. Consider the following narrative of a student who cheats by acts essay on abnormal narcolepsy, using a rubber band: Basically, the night before the online essays, test, you can take the rubberband, preferably a thicker one, and stretch it.

While stretched, write the answers on the rubberband as small as you can see from about a foot away. Write the acts sample eating narcolepsy, answers as close together as you can. When the rubberband is unstretched it will just appear to as a science essay be colored solid black, but stretched it will reveal the answers. Acts Essay Sample Eating. I haven't met a teacher that was suspicious of a rubberband. When the psycology, test starts, just start playing with the rubberband. If you keep stretching and unstretching it, the teacher won't think anything of it when you stretch it to look for an answer.

The trick is acts sample on abnormal eating that you need to keep a steady pace of stretching + unstretching the essay, rubberband, and you can't break that pace when you look for acts essay sample on abnormal narcolepsy an answer. Writing the answers on personal pronouns writing a rubber band, so that it reveals the answers upon stretching, exemplifies the innovative ways that students cheat on in-class examinations. There are other features of this technique that make it noteworthy. First, note the acts on abnormal, level of calculation that is involved: the student approximates the optimal distance of viewing the stretched rubber band (12 inches away from face), and he writes the buy research exploit for dramatic effect in macbeth, answers close together so that it appears to be one solid color. Second, a normal appearance is projected through a rhythmic elongation prior to acts sample the test so as to using in academic writing feign normalcy. Acts On Abnormal Eating. By engaging in such behaviors prior to the exam, the student cultivates the professor as a victim since the online, student manipulates a harmless and sample on abnormal ordinary object in innovative ways to my school essay you are what you eat dupe the professor into a false sense of normalcy.

Another highly creative method of cheating involves using an ordinary academic accoutrement as a resource: I noticed that someone was preparing a cheat sheet. I asked myself what is he doing? He wrote his answers on two small pieces of essay on abnormal eating, paper with very small print. The thing that was amazing was how he hid it. He has one of those Bic pens.

You know the ones you can see through. Well what he did is he took off the cap of the pen and actually put the cheat sheet in the pen. Several of the respondents in this study reported that they had witnessed or had used this technique themselves. These miniaturized cheat sheets were used with clear plastic mechanical pencils, as well as pens. Again, the value of using such ordinary academic tools in innovative ways is that the electronic government and development essay, possibility of suspicious attention is diminished. While cheating has been conceptualized as being related to essay on abnormal social and environmental factors, this study demonstrates that students tailor their illegitimate methods to adapt to their personal, social, and situational contexts. That is, students use what is already available to them—an unwitting smart student who happens to be close by, deviant peers, academic accoutrements, ordinary objects, and body parts as innovative resources to successfully cheat. For some students, a rift between the - buy online essays, culturally prescribed symbols of success (i.e. a college degree) and the absence of legitimate opportunities for essay sample on abnormal narcolepsy their attainment translates into adopting innovative methods of adaptation (Merton, 1938). - Buy Essays. Thus, why students cheat has been the topic of extensive research, but how they cheat has been largely neglected (but see Cizek, 1999). This paper supplements the established findings on academic dishonesty by delineating the innovative techniques that students use to respond to acts essay eating perceived strains and frustrations encountered within the context of pursuing a college degree.

Numerous prior studies have found that inattentive proctoring facilitates student cheating. As I have shown here, however, determined cheaters find ways to circumvent the surveillance of vigilant proctors. Thus, students take painstaking measures qualifying their professors as a candidate, a potential sucker, distracting them at opportune moments, and devising idiosyncratic communication systems (semiotic methods). This means that students' decisions to cheat are significantly dictated by the victimization potential of their professors, not necessarily by the relative strengths of their strains and frustrations. Previous studies of academic dishonesty have systematically identified the psychological and social variables correlated to cheating, based primarily on subjects' responses to surveys. For instance, prior researchers have adamantly maintained that students' propensity to cheat is influenced by the attitudes of their peers. However, my analysis indicates that peers are integral and collusive agents in the cheating processes, in the way academic dishonesty is essay manifested. Moreover, the variety of tactics used to cheat illustrates the creativity and ingenuity of students today (that is, the ones who decide to cheat).

Even a macro-level variable such as gender has been observed to be adapted as a micro-level situational tactic in my school what in secret cheating scenarios. This paper also offers practical suggestions to deter academic dishonesty and essay sample on abnormal eating enforce academic integrity during in-class exams. Traditional criminological thought suggests that the severity and swiftness of you are you eat in secret, sanctions would serve as adequate deterrents (Gottfredson and Hirschi, 1990). Some institutions have adopted honor codes to deter cheating while maintaining academic integrity, a tactic that has generally been regarded as successful (McCabe and Trevino, 1993). My data, however, suggest a more routine activities approach to crime prevention strategies (Cohen and Felson, 1979); the acts essay sample on abnormal eating, first step in formulating and implementing such policies involves knowing how rule-breaking behavior is conducted (see Wright and and contrast essay Decker, 1994). My data suggest that cheating is either done solitarily or collusively. In the latter instance, paying attention to in-class group dynamics (i.e., individuals who sit and congregate together) may serve as invaluable intelligence in spotting cheaters. Teachers may want to acts be especially alert to recurring patterns of behavior (touching one's nose, head etc.) from as a science students during in-class examinations. In the former instance, it may be prudent for professors to know who the good students are and where they sit in order to cast a vigilant eye on the students who sit near them (see Cisek, 1999, p. 40-43). [4] As my data indicate, cheaters are never far from the essay on abnormal eating, good students. It may also be practical to online shakespeare for dramatic effect in macbeth inspect ordinary items (e.g., drinks and drink containers, rubber bands) and other academic accoutrements (e.g., pens, calculators), along with non-trouble-rousing body parts (e.g., hands, arms) since they may be used as cheat sheets. Of course, certain body parts cannot—for obvious reasons—be visually inspected.

It is impossible to implement dress codes without offending the acts essay sample on abnormal, social, cultural, and electronic essay perhaps, religious, sensibilities of some students. Enforcing academic integrity by limiting the opportunity for academic fraud in acts the first place is no small task, but it is one that is manageable: professors can do simple things such as making sure that desks are free of scribbled notes, that book bags are closed, that hats are removed. Further, they can look for personal pronouns gazes that repeatedly veer off into areas other than the test; multiple versions of exams can be administered in small classrooms rather than auditoriums; instructors can also employ additional proctors during exams, adopting wide and fixed space seating. While fixed seating flies in the face of on abnormal eating, student autonomy, and reeks of professorial despotism, it functions as a protector of buy research paper how does shakespeare the supernatural for dramatic in macbeth, meritocratic ideology since it reduces situational opportunities for unprepared students to cheat from the beginning; that is, it hinders students from strategically placing themselves around a smart student. [5] It robs potential cheaters from victimizing an unwitting student, a student who has—ideally— diligently toiled for acts on abnormal narcolepsy the grade. Finally, I speculate as to why cheating may be so attractive to college students. Cheating, like criminal behavior in general, represents the adoption of illegitimate means of responding to in academic writing a perceived frustration in acts the pursuit of a valued goal. As critics of strain theory have noted, however, explaining the prevalence of cheating as a function of materialistic motives ascribes an electronic government and development essay, overly instrumental view of acts essay sample on abnormal eating, human behavior, and neglects the in academic, moral and emotional dimensions of rule breaking (Katz, 1988). So what non-material gain does cheating provide? We can begin by noting that the origins of students' strains and frustrations are irrelevant to the psychological and social reality of the consequences which may result. The result of having an overly active social life, numerous extracurricular activities, a demanding work schedule, and consequently being unable to devote the necessary study time, is a highly stressful and anxiety producing condition.

Individuals who face such stress have at their means two alternative responses: effectuate changes in the self or the environment (Halleck, 1967). Cheating represents an adaptation to that stress. The most effective way to reduce tension and acts stress in compare and contrast essay zam polishing one's condition, according to Halleck, is through motoric activity/physical action; and if we apply this conceptual framework to student cheating, we can begin to see the non-material allure of cheating. Acts Essay Eating. As outlined in this paper and evident from my data, cheating involves a significant investment of one's time, energy, and resources; moreover, it involves a considerable amount of physical action prior to and during the government essay, exam. That is, students have to sift through their assigned readings and notes and sample on abnormal eating determine which ones they will place in the cheat sheet; not only that, they must expend great care and cunning while cramming such information into their cheat sheets; next they have to devise where and pronouns writing how they will store their unauthorized notes and how they will retrieve them. For a standard fifty minute exam, it is possible to spend three to four times that much time thinking, writing, and preparing to cheat. And during this process they actively—physically and mentally—become engrossed in the task at hand. That is, frustration, a highly noxious and tension producing state, is incrementally transformed into physical action; it is precisely during this corporeal metamorphosis that an individual senses the tingling sensations of hope (obtaining a high/passing grade), along with a non-negligible heaping of excitement and the possibility of danger (O'Malley and Mugford, 1995). But most significantly, these actions provide creative outlets for acts sample on abnormal eating students to using pronouns in academic transform their impotent and frustrated existential situation into an autonomous mode of being in the planning, preparing, and execution of their deviant plans (see Halleck 1967, p. 77). Students who are caught cheating face embarrassment, shame, and possibly, expulsion.

Thus, the acts essay on abnormal eating, risks associated with cheating are very real. Yet, despite such formal and informal sanctions, research indicates that an astounding 60-70% of my school you are what, college students admit to cheating. On Abnormal. I am almost certain that most (if not all) instructors have wondered why students spend their time planning, rehearsing, and executing illegitimate plans when they could spend that same time devoting themselves to psycology essay their studies. A simple answer would be to say that they are lazy; that cheating constitutes an easy and immediate gratification to an otherwise pressing need. On Abnormal. However, to view cheating as an impulsively conceived and executed form of academic dishonesty, and government essay conceptualizing cheaters as persons lacking self control as a result of poor parenting and deficient moral training, overlooks a socio-structural fact (Gottfredson and Hirschi, 1990): cheating persists across class, race, gender, and acts on abnormal eating narcolepsy national boundaries (Cizek, 1999). The cheating act itself is suffused with an unmistakable tinge of existential boundary crossings that are manifested in the corporeal, emotional, and moral experiences of cheaters (Katz, 1999). Pronouns In Academic Writing. Thus, a more troubling—and theoretically titillating—answer would be to essay sample narcolepsy explore how cheating presents a set of morally fun challenges that students attempt to work through, that somehow, the possibility of outwitting authority figures provides an unfathomable moral and sensual delight for those who commit such acts (Forsyth and Marckese, 1993). As I have shown in this paper, students are capable of using highly innovative methods to respond to the perceived frustrations of in-class examinations, tailoring their illicit methods to their personal, social, and situational appurtenances, relying on their wits, peers, and even their sexuality. It is perhaps the allure of these moral and emotional challenges and how does shakespeare exploit for dramatic in macbeth gains through illegitimate means that is acts essay perhaps even more worthy of further investigation than the allure represented by the more material challenges and gains so often represented as underlying students' motivations to cheat. Acknowledgments: Thanks to Steve Doblin, Marilyn Hudson, Marina Klich, John LaVelle, John P. Lesko and the Plagiary referees, James Lindgren, Ralph Luker, Brenda Nichols, Leah Sims, Kevin Smith, Russell Thornton, and Kevin Vaughan.

The author also wishes to thank Shannon Barton, Jim Cassell, Amy Craddock, Lori Guevara, Dragan Milovanovic, and Jeff Schrink for their insightful comments on earlier drafts. The author alone is responsible for any errors. Agnew, R. (1985). Essay What You Eat. A revised strain theory of delinquency. Social Forces, 64, 151-167. Agnew, R. (1992). Foundation for a general strain theory of crime and acts on abnormal eating delinquency.

Criminology, 30, 47-87. Aiken, L. R. Compare And Contrast. (1991). Detecting, understanding, and narcolepsy controlling for government essay cheating on acts essay sample eating tests. Research in government and development essay Higher Education, 32, 725-736. Anderson, W. F. Acts On Abnormal Eating. Jr. (1957). Attitudes of university students toward cheating. The Journal of Educational Research, 50 , 581-588. Baird, J. Essay You Eat In Secret. S. Jr. (1980).

Current trends in sample on abnormal narcolepsy college cheating. Psychology in the Schools, 17, 515-582. Barnett, D. C. and J. C. Dalton. (1981). Why college students cheat. Journal of College Student Personnel, 22 , 545-551.

Bonjean, C. M., and R. Mcgee. (1965). Scholastic dishonesty among undergraduates in differing systems of social control. Sociology of Education, 38 , 27-137. Bunn, D. N., S. B. Caudill. and D. M. Gropper. (1992). Crime in the classroom: An economic analysis of undergraduate student cheating behavior. Journal of Economic Education, 23, 97-207. Bushway, A. and W. R. Nash. (1977). School cheating behavior. Government Essay. Review of Educational Research, 47, 623-632. Centra, J. A. (1970). College freshman attitudes toward cheating.

The Personnel and Guidance Journal, 48, 366-373. Cizek, G. (1999). Cheating on sample narcolepsy Tests: How to Do It, Detect It, and Prevent It . Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Cohen, L. and M. Felson. (1979). Social change and crime rate trends: A routine activities approach. American Sociological Review, 44 , 588-608. Cooper, S. and C. - Buy Online. Peterson. (1980).

Machiavellianism and spontaneous cheating in competition. Journal of Research in Personality, 14 , 70-76. Diekhoff, G. On Abnormal. M., E. E. LaBeff., R. E. Clark., L. E. Williams., B. Francis. and V. J. Haines. Electronic Essay. (1996). College cheating: Ten years later. Research in Higher Education, 27, 487-502. Drake, C. A. 1941. Why students cheat. The Journal of Higher Education, 12 , 418-420. Eco, U. (1976).

A Theory of Semiotics . Bloomington, IN: University of acts essay sample on abnormal, Indiana Press. Edwards, D. (2000). Extreme Case Formulations: Softeners, Investment, and online how does exploit in macbeth Doing Nonliteral. Research on Language and Social Interaction, 33 (4), 347-373. Emerson, R. M., R. I. Fretz., and L. Shaw. (1995). Writing Ethnographic Fieldnotes . Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Enker, M. Acts Sample On Abnormal. S. (1987). Attitudinal and normative variables as predictors of cheating behavior. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 18 , 315-330.

Eskridge, C. and G. A. Ames. (1993). Attitudes about cheating and self-reported cheating behaviors of criminal justice majors and non-criminal justice majors: A research note. Journal of Criminal Justice Education, 4, 65-78. Eve, R. A. and D. G. Bromley. (1981). Scholastic dishonesty among college undergraduates: Parallel tests of two sociological explanations.

Youth and online essays Society, 13, 3-22. Ferrell, C. M. and L. Essay On Abnormal Eating. G. Daniel. (1995). A frame of and contrast essay, reference for understanding behaviors related to the academic misconduct of undergraduate teacher education students. Research in Higher Education, 36, 345-375. Flynn, S., M. Reichard and S. Slane. (1987). Cheating as a function of task outcome and Machiavellianism.

The Journal of Psychology, 121 , 423-427. Forsyth, C. and acts essay sample narcolepsy T. A. Markese. As A Essay. (1993). Thrills and skills: A sociological analysis of poaching. Deviant Behavior, 14 (2), 57-172. Franklyn-Stokes, A. and S. A. Eating Narcolepsy. Newstead. (1995). Undergraduate cheating: Who does what and Why? Studies in Higher Education, 20, 159-172. Genereux, R. L. and B. A. Mcleod. (1995).

Circumstances surrounding cheating: A questionnaire study of college students. My School Essay You Are You Eat. Research in Higher Education, 36 , 687-704. Gottfredson, M. Essay Sample Eating. R. and - buy online essays T. Hirschi. (1990). A General Theory of acts essay sample on abnormal eating narcolepsy, Crime . Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. Graham, M. A., J. Monday, K. O'Brien and S. Personal In Academic. Steffen. Essay On Abnormal Eating Narcolepsy. (1994). Cheating at small colleges: An examination of student and faculty attitudes and behaviors. - Buy Online Essays. Journal of College Student Development, 35, 255-260. Haines, V. J., G. Acts Sample On Abnormal. M. Diekhoff, E. How Does Exploit For Dramatic Effect. E. Labeff and R. E. Eating. Clark. (1986).

College cheating: Immaturity, lack of commitment, and the neutralizing attitude. Research in Higher Education, 25, 342-354. Halleck, S. (1971). Psychiatry and the Dilemmas of Crime . Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. Hetherington, E. M. and S. E. Feldman. (1964). College cheating as a function of subject and situational variables. Journal of Educational Psychology, 55, 212-218. Hollinger, R. C. and L. Lanza-Kaduce. (1996).

Academic dishonesty and the perceived effectiveness of countermeasures: An empirical survey of, cheating at a major public university. NASPA Journal, 33 , 292-306. Houston, J. Sample On Abnormal Eating Narcolepsy. P. Electronic Essay. (1976). The assessment and prevention of answer copying on undergraduate multiple-choice examinations. Research in Higher Education, 5, 301-311. Houston, J. P. (1977). Sample On Abnormal Eating. Learning, opportunity to government cheat, and amount of reward. Journal of Experimental Education, 45 , 30-35. Houston, J. P. Acts Sample On Abnormal Narcolepsy. (1983).

College classroom cheating, threat, sex and prior performance. Psycology Science Essay. College Student Journal, 17 , 229-235. Houston, J. P. (1986). Survey corroboration of experimental findings on classroom cheating behavior. College Students Journal, 20, 168-173. Jacobs, B. (1999). Dealing Crack: The Social World of sample on abnormal eating narcolepsy, Streetcorner Selling . Boston, MA: Northeastern University Press. Jacobs, B. (2000).

Robbing Drug Dealers: Violence Beyond the Law . Boston, MA: Northeastern University Press. Jacobs, B. and J. Miller. (1998). Crack Dealing, Gender, and - buy online essays Arrest Avoidance. Acts Essay Sample On Abnormal. Social Problems, 45, 550-566. Johnson, R. E. and M. S. Klores. As A Science Essay. (1968).

Attitudes toward cheating as function of classroom dissatisfaction and peer norms. The Journal of Educational Research, 62 , 60-64. Karlins, M., C. Essay Sample On Abnormal Narcolepsy. Michaels and S. Podlogar. Psycology As A. (1988). An empirical investigation of actual cheating in a large sample of undergraduates. Research in Higher Education, 29 , 359-364. Katz, J. (1988). Seductions of Crime . New York: Basic Books.

Katz, J. (1999). How Emotions Work . Essay Sample On Abnormal. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Kelly, J. A. and L. Worrell. Personal In Academic Writing. (1978). Personality characteristics, parent's behaviors, and sex of subject in relation to cheating. Journal of Research in Personality, 12, 179-188. LaBeff, E. E., R. Acts Essay. E. Clark, V. J. Haines, and G. M. Diekhoff. (1990). Situational ethics and college student cheating. Buy Research Paper Online Exploit For Dramatic Effect In Macbeth. Sociological Inquiry, 60 , 190-198. Leo, R. A. Acts Eating. (1996).

Miranda's revenge: Police interrogation as a confidence game. Law and Society Review, 30 (2), 259-288. McCabe, D. L. 1992. The influence of situational ethics on cheating among college students. Sociological Inquiry, 62, 365-374. McCabe, D. L. and W. Online. J. Bowers. On Abnormal Eating Narcolepsy. (1994).

Academic dishonesty among males in college: A thirty year perspective. Electronic Government And Development. Journal of College Student Development, 35 , 5-10. McCabe, D. L. and L. K. Trevino. (1993). Academic dishonesty: Honor codes and other contextual influences. Journal of Higher Education, 64 , 522-538. McCabe, D. L. and L. K. Trevino. (1996). What we know about sample eating cheating in college: Longitudinal trends and recent developments. Essay. Change, 28 , 28-33. Merton, R. K. (1938). Essay On Abnormal Eating. Social structure and anomie.

American Sociological Review, 3 , 672-682. Michaels, J. W. and T. D. Miethe. (1989). Applying theories of deviance to essay what in secret academic cheating. Social Science Quarterly, 70, 870-885. Newstead, S. E., A. Acts Essay Sample Eating Narcolepsy. Franklyn-Stokes and P. Armstead. (1996). Individual differences in student cheating. Journal of buy research how does shakespeare exploit the supernatural for dramatic, Educational Psychology, 88 , 229-241. O'Malley, P. and S. Mugford. (1995). Crime, excitement, and modernity. In Varieties of Criminology (pp. 189-211).

Westport, CN: Praeger. Schab, F. (1991). Schooling without learning: Thirty years of cheating in high school. On Abnormal. Adolescence, 26, 61-69. Smith, T. (2000). Challenging Academe's Mystique: Applying Criminological Theories to College Student Cheating.

Ph.D. Dissertation. University at Albany, State University of New York: School of Criminal Justice. Spillar, S. and - buy essays D. Sample. H. Crown. (1995). Changes over time in academic dishonesty at the collegiate level. Psychological Reports, 76 , 763-768. Ward, D. A. and W. L. Beck. (1990). Gender and dishonesty.

The Journal of compare and contrast essay zam polishing, Social Psychology, 130, 333-339. Whitley, B. E. Jr., A. B. Jones and C. J. Jones. (1999). Gender differences in essay on abnormal cheating attitudes and classroom cheating behavior: A meta analysis. Sex Roles 41 (9/10), 657-680. Wright, R. and S. Decker. (1997).

Armed Robbers in Action: Stickups and Street Culture . Boston, MA: Northeastern University Press. Wright, R. and S. Decker. (1994). Burglars on the Job: Streetlife and Residential Break-ins . Boston, MA: Northeastern University Press. Wright, J. C. and R. Kelly. (1974). Cheating: Student/faculty views and responsibility. Improving College and University Teaching, 22 , 31-34.

1. Smith (2000: 160) concludes: Among all variables examined low self-control possessed the greatest predictive power. This study finds encouraging support for the theory's ability to explain another form of electronic government essay, misconduct among the many that have already been investigated. Thus, the predictive breadth and scope of self-control lends further credence to essay sample on abnormal eating narcolepsy its claims of paper online shakespeare exploit the supernatural, theoretical generality. 2. The respondents were asked to identify only their gender to essay on abnormal eating examine if tactical differences existed between the two sexes. 3. When I initially mentioned this technique to colleagues, they seemed to be genuinely impressed. In fact, some female colleagues expressed chagrin that they had not thought of it when they were in school. But more importantly, when they were asked—both male and female—what they would do if they witnessed such behavior in their classes, most replied that they would do nothing. And for good reason: they stated that gathering evidence to support their accusations (e.g., asking them to lift up their skirt to check for answers) would be nothing short of sexual harassment. Practically, I am not sure what can be done to prevent such cheating except to using personal pronouns writing institute a dress code on exam days, forbidding females from wearing skirts; but such a code would encounter obvious legal problems. Theoretically, male students could do the same to female professors; but in my data, I encountered no such creativity on acts on abnormal eating the part of the male students. One female colleague stated that she would confront male students who wrote cheat sheets near their sensitive areas.

4. Using In Academic. I am aware that this recommendation leads to another theoretical quagmire, one that now merely adds a label as a function of spatial proximity, not necessarily independent behavior. 5. Of course, this suggestion is based on the assumption that the exams will not be administered in a large auditorium that seat 500 plus students; moreover, it assumes that students who are forced to sit in a certain order will not form alliances and collusions of sorts. Phillip C. H. Shon is an Assistant Professor of Criminology at Indiana State University.

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[ jabs Ness with his hand, and Ness shakes it ] Malone : Do you know what a blood oath is, Mr. Ness? Malone : Good, 'cause you just took one. Scoop : Word is they're going to what you eat, repeal Prohibition. What'll you do then? Ness : [ jokingly ] I think I'll have a drink. Capone : [ to his henchmen after Ness and his team intercepted his shipment of acts sample on abnormal eating narcolepsy liquor from Canada ] I want you to get this fuck where he breathes! I want you to find this nancy-boy Eliot Ness, I want him DEAD! I want his family DEAD! I want his house burned to the GROUND!

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Bowtie Driver : [ Bowtie starts counting off five seconds ] One! Malone : [ to Ness as they assemble their team ] If you're afraid of getting a rotten apple, don't go to the barrel. And Development? Get it off the acts essay sample on abnormal eating narcolepsy tree. Malone : [ upon meeting each other for the first time ] You, you carry a badge? Malone : [ gives him a shotgun ] Carry a gun.

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Right here? Let's go! Capone : Listen to me here! You ain't got nothin' on me, nothin'! You're just a cop! Fuck you and your family! [ Ness goes to pull his gun, Capone's goons pull their guns and psycology as a science, point them at on abnormal narcolepsy Ness ] Malone : Not now Eliot, not now. [ Malone grabs Ness ] Malone : [ firing his gun to stop a suspect from running from - buy online away from him in the Canadian countryside ] All right!

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It is the time of the Ganglords. It is the time of Al Capone. Reporter : [ to Al Capone ] An article, which I believe appeared in a newspaper, asked why, since you are, or it would seem that you are, in effect, the mayor of my school essay what Chicago, you've not simply been appointed to essay narcolepsy, that position. [ other reporters laugh ] Capone : Well, I'll tell ya, you know, it's touching. Like a lot of you are you eat things in life, we laugh because it's funny and essay sample eating narcolepsy, we laugh because it's true. Now, some people will say - reformers, they'll say, 'Put that man in jail!

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Capone : [ to reporters ] When you got an all-out prizefight, you wait until the fight is over, one guy is left standing. 'N' that's how you know who won. Bartender : That green beer you're peddlin' just ain't any good. Bowtie Driver : It ain't supposed to be good! It's supposed to eating narcolepsy, be bought. Bowtie Driver : Don't worry about it, pops!

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Describe briefly how you will market your product or service. Summarize the essay sample, major points in personal the Marketing and acts essay eating, Sales chapter, which may include market positioning, pricing, promotion, and distribution. Summarize the most important points from the Financial Plan section here. Online? This should include your sales forecasts and projected expenses as well as the acts essay sample eating narcolepsy, logic behind the, projections. If you are a new company, describe when you expect to turn a profit . If you are an existing company, highlight past financial performance. 7. Financing Requirements (Optional) Summarize the amount of equity and/or debt financing that you are seeking, when you need it, the use of the funds, and when you expect to reach your next milestone event and/or start paying back the loan. Acts Essay Sample On Abnormal? Keep this at an overview level , as you will go into more detail later on in other chapters. Note: This is a complex question that you cannot answer until you complete your plan, so it is highly recommended you work your way through the entire writing process first . In particular, complete the financial planning process before attacking this section. Only then will you be able to identify the amount of money you will need to my school essay you are what you eat in secret, raise. With these sections fleshed out, you’ve finished your executive summary.

How to Write the Company and Financing Chapter. The company and finance section of your plan is sample eating narcolepsy, important, because introducing the management team is critical for both start-ups and established companies alike. Investors will use this information to gauge the future likelihood of success. Company and Financing Sections. Company Overview Management Team Required Funds (optional) Exit Strategy (optional) Mission Statement (optional) Company History (optional) Location and Facilities (optional) There are many variations and my school you are what you eat, approaches on how to lay out the acts eating narcolepsy, various components of a business plan. Our approach for the company overview section is to provide the - buy online essays, reader with the company’s legal information, address and a brief description of the company’s history. Since there are follow up sections in this chapter that over sample on abnormal narcolepsy, go the company’s location and history in more detail, you will want to keep this short (2-3 sentences). A BRIEF PRIMER ON COMPANY TYPES. The optimal company type is best determined by a credible Attorney.

The primer below is meant only to buy research online how does shakespeare exploit the supernatural for dramatic in macbeth, explain the broad differences between the most common company types. A sole proprietorship, according to the IRS: “A sole proprietor is someone who owns an unincorporated business by him or herself.” While the most simple to set up and the most common, there is a significant drawback: you will be personally liable for on abnormal eating, any obligations. So for psycology as a, example, if you sell someone a cupcake and acts essay sample on abnormal eating narcolepsy, they sue you because they found a hair in my school essay what it, and you lose in court, the creditors can legally go after your personal possessions – such as the roof over your head. A partnership, according to the IRS: “A partnership is the relationship existing between two or more persons who join to carry on a trade or business. Each person contributes money, property, labor or skill, and expects to share in the profits and losses of the company.” A partnership has certain advantages compared to a LLC, such as not needing to file formation documents when setting up a partnership, and not needing to file dissolution documents if dissolving the partnership. Acts Essay On Abnormal Eating? However, similar to sole proprietorships, partners in a partnership have unlimited liability for the company’s debts and liabilities. Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs) LLPs are different from traditional partnerships in that there are two classes of partners: (1) General partners that have full management and government, control but also full personal liability and acts eating narcolepsy, (2) Limited partners that have no personal liability beyond their investment in the partnership interest. In Academic Writing? Limited partners are often times “silent partners” that wish to invest in the venture but limit their exposure to liability.

A corporation is a separate legal entity owned by shareholders. Acts Sample Eating? A corporation is buy research paper online exploit, commonplace for businesses that anticipate seeking venture capital financing. Acts Essay Sample Narcolepsy? The downside to a corporation is the electronic, problem of acts “double taxation” since the compare essay zam polishing, corporation’s profits is taxed at the corporate level, and then any dividends distributed to shareholders are then taxed again at the personal level. You can elect a special tax status with the IRS to have your corporation not be taxed at the corporate level (instead, it would be taxed as a pass-through entity). Some of the drawbacks include not being able to acts narcolepsy, have more than 100 shareholders , and not being able to have non-US citizens/residents. A popular choice among many small businesses , a LLC limits the member’s personal liability and only taxes profits at the individual level (acts as a pass-through entity). Describe the type of psycology as a science essay company you plan to open, along with the registered name you plan to use. Explain your rationale – for example, if you are starting a company where you plan on seeking venture capital financing, then you will want to start a C-Corporation as majority of VCs will insist on this legal structure. If you have a home office/no dedicated business address.

Include your current office setup and your future office plans once your company expands, if applicable. For start-ups, and especially those seeking financing, the Management Team section is especially critical. With the lack of history, there is little investors can go by to gauge the acts essay eating narcolepsy, future success of a venture. The question lenders and investors will ask: Why should we trust your team with our money? You must demonstrate your team’s ability to execute on the stated goals. To accomplish this, you should highlight: Background of each member of the management team (education, relevant work experience, etc.) Roles and - buy, responsibilities within the company. Tip: Don’t include details about members of the Management Team that are not relevant to the reader. Acts On Abnormal Eating Narcolepsy? Everything presented should reinforce why your team is the right team to execute on the company’s vision.

If you have an established business the information you want to essay, present is the same. Keep in mind, however, that you also want to essay sample on abnormal, demonstrate that your team has the capability to manage growth of the psycology as a essay, company. As a company grows from start-up to essay eating narcolepsy, established business, the management team must also change. They must be able to manage employees, institute standardized systems, and ensure the business’s ability to using pronouns, scale operations while keeping profitability stable. If you already have a Board of Directors and/or Advisory Board, list these individuals and a brief description. In a publically trading company the acts essay sample eating narcolepsy, Board of Directors is elected by the shareholders and is the highest authority in pronouns the management of the company. For our purposes (context of a private company that is acts sample narcolepsy, most likely a startup or small but growing business), a Board of Directors is comprised of investor(s), founder(s), CEO and independent board member(s) who have substantial business and industry experience. A Board of Director’s typical responsibility is to set broad policies for the company, determine compensation for company management, and approve annual budgets.

An advisory board is a group of business leaders that can help guide your company and provides it with assistance when needed. Choose individuals with knowledge in your industry and and development essay, are willing to play a role in your company . While some advisors are compensated, it comes down to a case-by-case basis, frequently depending on acts sample on abnormal eating how much time the member is how does shakespeare exploit the supernatural for dramatic effect, committed to your company. Tips on building your Advisory Board: Choose a well-respected and acts eating narcolepsy, well-known individual as the first member of your Advisory Board. This will help you to recruit other members of the Board. Choose individuals that have strengths and buy research paper online exploit, relationships your business will need. As your business evolves, so will the members of narcolepsy your Advisory Board. Feel free to writing, shake up the acts essay sample narcolepsy, line up over electronic and development, time. In this section you will tell the reader how much money you need to raise, what you are going to use it for, and how you got to the requested amount.

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There are three fundamental questions every savvy investor will ask you: Cool idea, how do you make money with it? How much money do you need, and why and when? What do you think your company is worth? If you are seeking financing (regardless of its equity or debt), that most likely means that your financial model shows your company taking a loss in the initial stages, followed by break-even and subsequent profitability. The money you are seeking to buy research online exploit the supernatural effect, raise will simply allow you to have enough cash to cover the acts essay sample on abnormal, initial period where you will be taking a loss so that you can eventually make a profit. This is a simplification; you may be raising money to further grow your company, which may already be profitable. Or you might use the financing to get your product to the next stage in its product development lifecycle (i.e.; milestone event). But the general concept is the electronic government, same; the investment you are seeking bolsters your company’s cash position , allowing it to essay eating, grow revenue and/or profitability.

Cool idea, how do you make money with it? / How much money do you need, and why and - buy online essays, when? The financial statements provide the essay sample narcolepsy, answer to the first two questions (which is electronic government and development, why we recommend you complete your plan first). To answer how much money you need, analyze the cash flow statement to determine the cumulative cash flow. The lowest point on this curve will tell you what your maximum financing needs are , and at what point in essay sample on abnormal eating narcolepsy time. What do you think your company is worth? The third question is much harder to buy research how does for dramatic in macbeth, answer, especially for essay sample eating narcolepsy, a new company. At the end of the day it really comes down to what an using pronouns in academic writing investor thinks your company is worth (which is more art than science). However, there are three popular methods of valuing a company that can help you come up with a valuation to facilitate the negotiation. Cost approach (asset based approach) The cost approach seeks to determine a company’s value by analyzing the essay sample on abnormal eating narcolepsy, market value of compare and contrast its assets.

In other words, in this approach the acts narcolepsy, company is worth the sum of all its assets if they were to be liquidated . This approach may be appropriate for some industries such as real estate where the asset value may actually be worth more than the going concern value (present value of compare and contrast essay future cash flows generated by the asset). However, for on abnormal eating narcolepsy, many companies the value of its branding and reputation, along with its ability to generate profits, will exceed the value of as a science its assets. The market approach seeks to acts narcolepsy, determine a company’s value by online, analyzing recent sales of similar assets, with the theory that valuations of similar companies can serve as a good proxy. This is a common approach in the real estate industry. The income approach seeks to determine a company’s value by using its expected profit over time and then placing a value on that future stream of income in on abnormal today’s terms . Since there is inherent uncertainty with a future stream of income, there are numerous ways to discount that expected income to account for risk. Now you have all the pieces to complete the equation. You have the amount of money you need by looking at cumulative cash flow. You also have an essay in secret idea of how much money your company will be worth. Equation to determine how much equity you should offer:

Equity to offer = Company Valuation / Money needed. If raising debt, you are not exchanging equity for cash. Acts Sample Narcolepsy? Instead, you should focus on online the loan’s interest rate and payment schedule. Make sure you will be turning a profit that is both large enough and soon enough to acts essay sample on abnormal eating, ensure there is no delinquency on servicing the loan. For equity financing, answer the following: Investment amount needed When you need it How much time it will buy you / When you expect to turn a profit or get to compare essay, the next milestone event % of equity offered and at what company valuation (you may wish to keep exact figures vague in acts essay on abnormal eating narcolepsy order to zam polishing, further negotiate) Exit strategy. For debt financing, answer the following: Loan amount needed When you need it When you will be able to pay back the loan The amount and frequency of loan payments. In addition to the information above, you should also summarize how you plan to use the sample eating narcolepsy, funds. The level of detail should be at a high level ; if the investor or lender wants to see expenses in more detail that will be available in the Appendix within the Profit/Loss statement. Construction of new kitchen:

Kitchen remodeling, March 1, 2014, $25,000 Kitchen hardware, April 1, 2014, $50,000 Total Loan Amount: $75,000. If based on your financial model you anticipate relatively small yet variable expenses month to month, a line of compare credit may be a good choice. Acts Essay Sample On Abnormal Eating Narcolepsy? With a line of credit you draw upon it when you require the funds and pay interest immediately on the money as it is borrowed. It works very similarly to a credit card in that you typically have a pre-set limit to how much you can borrow, the major exception that since you may be able to secure the line of credit with assets, you may be able to get better terms. In the Quick Start Guide we briefly went over electronic and development essay, the different strategies available and how thinking about acts on abnormal your company’s eventual exit will help shape your business model. It’s recommended you review the Quick Start guide and practice that exercise. Depending on your company, there are various exit strategies available, including: Selling your business Passing it down through the family Taking the company public (IPO) Liquidation. If you are seeking equity financing, then your investors will pay close attention to this section. Compare And Contrast Essay Zam Polishing? Angel investors and sample eating, VCs demand a large return on their investment since they are taking a large risk by investing into your company.

Therefore, you need to include detailed information on - buy how you intend to sell the company or take it public. Demonstrating a large market opportunity. If investors are going to take a big risk, they demand a big return. You need to demonstrate your business has the essay sample, potential to either take substantial market share from an incumbent competitor, or create a new market. Investors like to be in hot, growing industries such as biotechnology, mobile e-commerce and healthcare. These are all industries that have huge upside growth potential and ones that investors are more inclined to invest in. Solving a larger company’s problem.

If your exit strategy is to and contrast essay zam polishing, sell your company to a larger company, then identify how your company’s product solves that larger company’s stated problems and/or goals. For example, Apple’s mapping software is playing catch-up to Google Maps. If your company can help Apple improve its software, your company would become an attractive acquisition target. The mission statement reflects the core purpose and vision of the company. Sample Narcolepsy? It’s a statement your employees and customers can get behind. Some tips on writing a well-crafted mission statement: Keep it short. 1-2 sentences max. Don’t use “fluff” words. - Buy Online Essays? Make the statement mean something.

A mission statement, if done well, should encapsulate both what the company does (what it sells) as well as the acts essay sample eating narcolepsy, culture/vision/purpose. Examples of Fortune 500 firms that really get it right: A. BRISTOL-MYERS SQUIBB COMPANY (PHARMACEUTICALS) Mission Statement: “To discover, develop and government, deliver innovative medicines that help patients prevail over serious diseases.” Why it’s great: The keywords “discover, develop and deliver” demonstrate the company’s capability to in delivering an end-to-end solution. By using the words “innovate” and acts essay sample on abnormal narcolepsy, “prevail over in secret, serious diseases” it serves as a rallying call for their thousands of essay sample on abnormal eating narcolepsy employees that what they are doing is (1) cutting edge and (2) has a higher purpose then themselves. Mission statement: “ We will be the easiest pharmacy retailer for compare and contrast essay zam polishing, customers to use.” Why it’s great: In one short sentence, the acts essay on abnormal eating narcolepsy, company has managed to (1) describe what it sells (2) how it will win in the marketplace.

It is essay zam polishing, a pharmacy retailer and it will solely focus on making itself easier for sample on abnormal eating narcolepsy, the customer to use (that could mean so many things, such as innovating online to fulfill prescriptions to - buy, improved customer service within their stores). Example of poorly written mission statements. A. FORTUNE 500 FOOD AND BEVERAGE COMPANY. Mission statement: “ The Company’s primary objective is to maximize long-term stockholder value, while adhering to acts sample, the laws of the jurisdictions in which it operates and at all times observing the highest ethical standards.” Why it’s horrible: It does not serve as a rallying call for employees, suppliers, or partners. Its objectives are obvious (what company does not want to essay, maximize value) and borderline absurd (are there companies that do not want to on abnormal narcolepsy, adhere to local and exploit the supernatural for dramatic in macbeth, federal laws)? Lastly, it does not mention what the essay on abnormal eating, company actually does. B. Essays? FORTUNE 500 VEHICLE PARTS SUPPLIER. Mission Statement: “ We are committed to attracting, developing, and essay sample eating, keeping a diverse work force that reflects the nature of our global business.” Why its horrible: While a diverse workforce is certainly not a bad thing, only stating that as the company’s mission statement is ineffective, lacks direction or focus, and completely misses the my school in secret, point of having a mission statement.

This is predominately for businesses that have previous trading history, but can also be used by new companies that want to highlight relevant history on how the company came to existence, work completed to date, milestones achieved, etc. Some information you may want to include: Start date First location First product/service Significant milestones/events. Reminder: keep in mind that there is no set rule as to the level of detail you want to include. This is dictated by the relevancy of the acts sample, information to the reader and how this information helps strengthen your plan’s ability to build credibility for paper exploit for dramatic in macbeth, your company. Every company is made of milestones. Milestones for a business are achievements that demonstrate the business is on the right track. They are best when quantifiable and on abnormal, measureable. For example, achieving a working prototype of my school you are what you eat in secret your product, or getting to break-even, are both huge milestones that showcase your ability to execute and reduces subsequent risk of your company.

Key concept: The more uncertainty that you can take off from the table, the better valuation you can get for your business. For businesses that have a retail or manufacturing component, this is an important section of your plan. Information you may want to include: Size (e.g.; in sq. ft.) Location/Address Other notable facts, such as equipment at the facility. Location is essay on abnormal narcolepsy, important for in academic writing, a large number of retail businesses, whether you are a restaurant or purveyor of consumer products. Acts Essay Sample On Abnormal? If possible, provide statistics about the retail location you have chosen or are planning to choose. Describe the lease terms you are able to secure, and if there are any laws that protect the lessee from unreasonable price increases. You can read a detailed article about what to - buy, look for in a lease agreement here. Provide detailed information on acts sample narcolepsy the manufacturing facilities.

For example, your operation may require a reliable source of electricity and water. Describe how the - buy online essays, facility provides the business with these resources. Acts? If the personal in academic writing, facility is pre-existing equipment or structures that can be leveraged, make mention of that. Location can be an important aspect of your business even if you are not in retail or manufacturing. For example, you might want to acts essay sample narcolepsy, open your software company in paper online how does exploit the supernatural for dramatic Silicon Valley as that provides a competitive advantage from an on abnormal eating employee recruitment and fundraising perspective. If you operate out of government essay a home office. Describe your future expansion plans, including expected date of expansion. Upon completing these sections, you will then be finished with the company and financing section of your business plan. Writing the Products and Services Chapter. The products and services chapter of eating your business plan should be written clearly and pronouns in academic writing, descriptively, to help give investors a comprehensive understanding of the essay sample on abnormal narcolepsy, bread and using pronouns, butter of your business.

Your products and services section should include the following sections. Products and Services Chapter Sections. Products and Services Competitors Sourcing and Fulfillment (optional) Technology (optional) Intellectual Property (optional) Future Products and Services (optional) Your products and services are the lifeblood of acts your business – it’s what your customers need, and buy research paper online shakespeare exploit, if you get this right, everything else will follow . Commonly referred to as “product lift”, which essentially means getting the secret sauce working. It means that customers want to buy your product/service, and you are filling a need that was previously not satisfied. Thinking in terms of acts sample eating benefits vs. features. What is the consumer really buying? For example, a person buying a Rolex watch is not only buying a device to tell time, but the prestige and status that comes with a luxury product. Think about personal in academic what end benefit your product/service delivers. Of course, the functional aspects of your product/service are also important. Depending on what you are going to sell, think through the features it will provide, packaging, design, branding, quality, and acts essay on abnormal narcolepsy, other aspects that help position and/or differentiate it from competing products/services.

You may have heard the you are what in secret, business adage that acquiring a new customer is acts essay sample narcolepsy, indefinitely more expensive then keeping an existing customer. One of the reasons this is true is the potential to sell additional add-ons, upgrades and my school you are what, substitute products/services to existing customers . Think about sample on abnormal eating how you can drive incremental revenue. Whether it’s via subscriptions, repeat business, or annual contracts, you may be providing products/services that generate a recurring revenue stream. As A? This is a good thing, because (1) your revenue can be more predictable and on abnormal eating, stable (2) you are maximizing earning potential . Think how you can generate recurring revenue, which is expressed with a metric called Lifetime Value per customer. You will complete the online, price you want to set your products/services in essay sample eating the Financial Plan chapter, and we also have a section for you to describe your pricing strategy; however it is advisable to start thinking about how you want to my school essay what you eat in secret, price your products/services. Competitive analysis is an extremely useful tool and one that should be revisited often as the competitive landscape changes over time. It starts with competitive analysis. Background (location, history, ownership) Financials (revenue, profitability) Products (product line, services, patents, licenses) Marketing (channels used and budget, pricing, alliances/affiliates) Personnel (headcount, notable executives, compensation, job openings) Market share Strengths, Weaknesses. Tips on how to perform competitive analysis.

The Internet makes this much easier then in on abnormal eating days past. Some ideas: Google search using keywords that your customers would use to find you Look up industry association websites Look up directories such as Yahoo or Crunchbase Use to and contrast essay zam polishing, find your competitor’s job openings Competitor’s websites Find your competitor’s management team members on acts on abnormal narcolepsy LinkedIn. Not only do you have to worry about current competitors you can see, but you have to be vigilant and be on the lookout for new entrants. For example, a company that already sells to your customer base may see your industry as a logical next step. You should consider the likelihood of new entrants high if: The industry sees high margins (its super profitable) There is unmet demand (more customers then suppliers) There are no major barriers to entry (does not take much to start competing) There is psycology as a essay, future growth potential (such as mobile apps)

Much of this is acts on abnormal eating narcolepsy, common sense – if you see a market opportunity that no one is competing in yet, don’t expect that you will be alone for long. Sourcing is simply the process of procuring goods and services from suppliers that are required for your company to make its products or deliver its service. Some things to consider when choosing and managing your suppliers: Cost: This is an obvious one – the lower the price, the higher your profit margins will be. Payment terms: The longer you have to pay your suppliers, the more working capital you have on hand. Reliability: You must consider how reliable your suppliers are and personal in academic, what would happen to your ability to operate if they cannot deliver.

Scalability: As your business expands, will your suppliers be able to meet your needs? Fulfillment is simply the process of acts essay on abnormal narcolepsy how your company delivers its products/services, from point of sale to - buy online essays, delivery. There are several popular fulfillment options: Engineer to order: the eating, product is compare, designed and essay on abnormal eating, built to customer specifications (e.g.; large construction projects) Build to order: the product’s design is standardized but manufacture of final product is based off of online essays customer specifications (e.g.; aircraft and yachts) Assemble to order: the product is assembled to on abnormal narcolepsy, the customer’s specifications using pre-fabricated components (e.g.; Chipotles burritos, Dell computers) Make to stock: the product is manufactured in quantity based on expected sales of the product (e.g.; retailers) If you are going to buy research paper online how does for dramatic in macbeth, be selling physical products and expect to acts sample eating, hold inventory, then you should pay very close attention to how you forecast the as a science, amount of inventory you need to meet your projected sales.

Too little inventory and you may not be able to meet demand. Sample On Abnormal Narcolepsy? Too much inventory and you tie up all of your cash on excess inventory. Essays? Some key points: Have accurate sales forecasts. Acts Essay Sample On Abnormal Eating? Use historical sales data if you have it, and make sure you account for seasonality. Have accurate inventory tracking. Use bar code scanning or equivalent to ensure there are no data entry errors. Government? Utilize inventory management software. Essay On Abnormal Narcolepsy? QuickBooks, Sage, and a plethora of other vendors provide a cloud-based solution for you to manage and in academic, maximize your inventory levels. Technology in today’s business environment is becoming more and more important and serves as a source of essay sample on abnormal eating competitive advantage.

Take Wal-Mart or FedEx as two examples of companies that provide services (low-cost products and shakespeare exploit for dramatic effect, shipping), but utilize technology as a critical means of delivering those services. Wal-Mart uses a sophisticated supply chain management IT system to ensure its low prices. Acts On Abnormal Eating? FedEx uses technology to optimize delivery routes and and contrast essay, times, which enables it to ship to practically every corner of the globe, seamlessly and with very low error rates. Think about how technology plays a part in your business and if it is critical to your business operations. If technology is critical to acts eating narcolepsy, your business operations, then you must think about your disaster preparedness and contingency planning . Online How Does Shakespeare The Supernatural For Dramatic Effect? Depending on your business, you may want to essay on abnormal narcolepsy, create back-up copies of data and software, routine security checks, and securing physical assets. What would happen if you lost access to the technology? Think about alternatives that you could utilize. For example, if you license a piece of software and later down the road decide that the psycology, cost is essay sample eating narcolepsy, too high, is there a competitor who can license you an alternative?

If you have exclusive rights to a technology, either through a patent or through an exclusive license agreement, this is a great competitive advantage and one that you will want to describe in detail. There are two types of intellectual property that may be applicable to and contrast, a business: industrial property (such as patents and acts on abnormal eating, trademarks), and copyright (such as novels and movies). If you have intellectual property that you want to protect, it is my school essay what you eat in secret, advisable that you seek the sample on abnormal eating, professional advice of a good Patent/IP Attorney , since this is personal pronouns, a great way to provide a barrier to entry for essay sample on abnormal eating, your business. Intellectual property type 1: Industry property. These include inventions (patents), trademarks and industrial designs (trade secrets, trade dress). If you have any proprietary process or technology then it is - buy, recommended that you apply for essay sample on abnormal narcolepsy, a patent to protect your invention. Online? You should apply for a trademark for essay sample narcolepsy, your company name and logo as well. Intellectual property type 2: copyright. These include literary and artistic works such as novels, poems and using personal pronouns, plays, films, musical works, artistic works such as drawings, paintings, photographs and sculptures, and architectural designs. In 2011, counterfeit copyrighted and trademarked goods were a $600 billion dollar industry worldwide. Enforcing your intellectual property may be feasible from a legal point of essay sample on abnormal narcolepsy view, but many times is not practical in using writing practice.

For example, Microsoft cannot possibly prosecute every single instance where its popular operating systems are copied and acts sample, downloaded. IP and your employees and contractors. It is just as important to secure your intellectual property in essay you are what relation to your employees and contractors. Everyone should be required to sign an invention assignment agreement, which basically states that the company owns all works produced while contracted by the company. In addition, you may consider handing out serialized notebooks for employees to acts narcolepsy, use , so that if there is ever a conflict as to whom owns a piece of intellectual property, there is a physical record. If you have future products and services planned, it is a good idea to describe the product roadmap and strategy behind it . Psycology As A Essay? A key concept is eating narcolepsy, that of pronouns in academic product lifecycle, which describes the stages of the life of a product. During this phase, your product will incur heavy promotional costs as you get the acts essay sample on abnormal eating narcolepsy, word out. You may discount the price of the product to encourage new customers. During this phase, you may focus on expanding your product to new segments in and development essay the marketplace, and expand the product line (for example, with new colors or other variations). During this phase, you are enjoying the fruits of your labor.

You may add new features to your product to acts essay on abnormal, stay competitive and to further differentiate your product from competitors. Marketing spend for your product starts to dissipate as sales of your product are in steady decline. After including all of this information, you’ll have completed the products and services chapter. Writing the Customers and Market Analysis Chapter. The customers and market analysis chapter will give you an opportunity to describe what your customer segments are, what needs you are filling for them, and and contrast zam polishing, how these groups of customers are trending in terms of growth and behavior. This chapter also includes any regulatory restrictions specific to your industry. Customers and Market Analysis Sections. Market Overview Market Needs Market Trends (optional) Market Growth (optional) Industry Analysis (optional) Key Customers (optional)

In the market overview section you are going to calculate the total market (referred to as Total Addressable Market) for your products, and then the essay eating, segment of that market your business can capture. Total addressable market can be thought of in pronouns writing several distinct levels. At the highest level is an on abnormal eating estimate of the paper how does shakespeare for dramatic effect in macbeth, total market given 100% saturation. Another way of looking at this is what would be the total market if one company had 100% market share. Once you have the total addressable market, then you can estimate what percentage of acts essay sample narcolepsy this you can realistically capture. This, of course, is much harder to predict with accuracy.

So the important thing to essay you eat in secret, remember is to utilize strong sources for your assumptions. For example, lets say you plan to open a high-end steakhouse in downtown Miami. To calculate your total addressable market, you might count how many high-end restaurants are in the downtown area and research the acts essay, average annual sales for my school you eat in secret, each restaurant. Then multiply the two to get the sample on abnormal, total sales for all high-end restaurants. This would be your total addressable market. Using the example above, we can then drill down to the next level and and development essay, determine what percentage of the sample on abnormal, market you can realistically capture.

You might assume that you will take an equal share of the market, thereby decreasing all other competitor’s shares in psycology science the market. Acts Essay On Abnormal Eating? Or you might offer cheaper prices, which you assume would take a larger percent of the market. Whatever your assumption, make sure it is well documented and logical. To obtain jaw-dropping product-lift you must solve a difficult and painful problem for the customer. And if there are competitors, you must solve the problem better than them, and enough so that customers are willing to switch to your company. Describe what problem your product is solving. If you are targeting multiple customer segments, make sure you go into detail on how your product serves each customer segment. Describe how your solution better solves customer’s pain points then your competitors. We as consumers are inherently lazy. We do not want to go through the time and science essay, cost of essay on abnormal switching from one company’s product/services unless it is psycology science, compelling enough, which is dependent on the switching cost.

For example, there is acts essay sample on abnormal eating narcolepsy, virtually no cost to switch from Coke to Pepsi. On the other hand, there is high switching cost associated with migrating from a Mac to government and development, a PC. To overcome this problem, describe how your product either is able to overcome customer’s inherent adversity towards switching products, or if your product is able to reach new customers and bypass switching costs altogether (in other words, instead of essay sample on abnormal eating taking customers away from psycology, your competitors, you are creating a new market for acts sample eating narcolepsy, your products). Understanding market trends at the macro level is critical for various aspects of your business. A growing or shrinking market is described in more detail in paper online exploit the supernatural in macbeth the market growth section. Below are some of the other factors that will affect market trends: The overall economy has a disproportionate effect on some businesses. For example, dog-walking services usually see a decline in sales as households reduce spending on non-essential purchases. Government regulations and policies can completely alter an industry, so it is sample on abnormal eating, imperative that you are up to date on upcoming changes. For example, the how does shakespeare effect, Jobs Act of 2012 allowed for the first time non-accredited investors to participate in private placement of securities.

This in on abnormal eating turn has created a new market for crowd-funding websites to emerge to connect startups with all types of investors. You may be in an industry where political conditions have an and development impact on the bottom line. For example, if you count the Dept. of acts eating Defense as one of your clients, then the across-the-board budget cuts (i.e.; Sequestration in the Budget Control Act of 2011) would surely have a negative effect on your business. If you build your business on top of a technology platform that will soon be replaced with a more cost affordable, powerful, and easier to use technology, then that will surely put you in a less advantageous position. Electronic Government And Development Essay? Knowing technology trends is valuable in ensuring you are gaining a competitive advantage through the use of technology. Your customers may change their sensitivity to price depending on a variety of factors, including competition, macroeconomic conditions, and changing consumer tastes. Keeping an eye on eating this trend will ensure you optimize your pricing strategy.

Market growth, mathematically, is simply measuring the change in market size from one time period to the next (usually in years). So if the market in the first year was $100 million and $150 million the essay what you eat, second year, then the market can be said to have grown by 50%. You will find that measuring market growth using historical market size data is much easier then forecasting market growth. Essay Narcolepsy? Utilize publically available data sources, trade publications, market research firms, and government agencies to find much of this research. Being able to demonstrate a market is growing is obviously important – for example, the market for essay, Blackberry accessories is clearly a declining market. Most investors and essay sample narcolepsy, lenders will not want to see a new business chase after dwindling customers. On the other hand, the market for Apple and shakespeare exploit for dramatic effect, Samsung phone accessories have seen great growth and acts essay sample on abnormal narcolepsy, will continue to grow as those companies continue to add new customers.

Your industry is defined as the group of companies that are related to you in terms of what you sell/how you derive your revenue. For example, Ford and Nissan are both in paper online exploit the supernatural for dramatic the automotive industry. Ford and essay narcolepsy, Nissan’s market (i.e.; customers) would be the end consumers who buy their cars. You will want to describe your industry name/classification (SIC/NAICS Code), which can be found on the Dept. of paper shakespeare exploit effect in macbeth Labor website. Understanding your industry’s dynamics is on abnormal narcolepsy, imperative to knowing it’s profit potential and attractiveness. A popular framework for conducting industry analysis is Porter’s five forces analysis, which analyzes an industry’s competitiveness (and therefore attractiveness). By performing this analysis you will have a clear picture of your competitors and paper exploit effect, how your company fits within the competitive landscape. If your industry has low barriers to entry and low switching costs, then expect increased competition, as there is little standing in the way for new entrants to enter the market and compete. If your industry is supplied by essay, very few suppliers with little alternative but to source from those suppliers, then expect downward pressure on compare and contrast essay zam polishing your margins. If your industry only has a small number of buyers, or there are many alternative products to choose from, then expect downward pressure on your margins.

If there are many substitute products in your industry and the switching costs between them are low, then expect substantial competition. An industry is very competitive if there are many competitors about the same size, there is little differentiation between competitor’s products, and acts eating, it is mature with little growth (so the only way to grow is to take a competitor’s market share). Although your product may cater to using in academic, many different sets of customers, you want to focus on a select group that will be the most likely to purchase your product/service and account for the lion’s share of acts essay on abnormal eating your company’s revenue. For many businesses, you will soon realize that a large portion of your revenue comes from a small percentage of your customers. For example, Starbucks may realize their key customers are white-collar business types that purchase a cup of coffee every day, versus the student type that comes in once a month.

When you can name your key customers. If you are in a business where volumes are low and what you eat, prices are high, then you should be able to name your key customers individually. Acts Sample On Abnormal? In this case, you should describe in detail your relationship with each of as a them separately. If you’ve filled out this chapter, congratulations. Doing market research and customer analysis is a complicated and time consuming task.

Time to acts sample on abnormal eating narcolepsy, move on writing to the next chapter! Writing the Marketing and Sales Chapter. The marketing and sales chapter gives you an opportunity to describe how you will manage your sales force and what sales activities they will conduct in order to close sales. Overview Positioning Pricing Promotion Distribution. In this section, summarize your marketing plan, being sure to sample narcolepsy, include: Positioning: Are you going to be the lowest cost provider or provide a differentiated product? Pricing: How will you price your products/services? Promotion: How will your market your products/services? Distribution: Where will your product/services be available? Tip: It will be easier to write this section after you complete the subsequent sections as the overview section summarizes key findings from the other section. Keep this section at the summary-level, as you will go into further detail in the subsequent sections.

Describe how you position your company within the competitive landscape. Will you compete on and development essay price, or will you differentiate your offering and acts essay on abnormal eating narcolepsy, stand out from in academic, your peers? For example, Wal-Mart positions itself as the low-cost provider in essay on abnormal eating narcolepsy an industry, while Apple designs premium products to reach the luxury end of the market. Provide your product/service at the cheapest price point in the marketplace. There are three primary ways to achieve this: Economies of Scale: For example, being able to personal in academic writing, turn more tables in a restaurant or produce more widgets in a factory. The more you are able to produce from your asset, the cheaper it becomes. It will also be harder for sample on abnormal eating narcolepsy, your competitors to enter the market since you have fixed assets and experience that requires a large investment. Low operating costs: Keeping costs down across all aspects of the business, including: Standardization: Limited customization Outsourcing: Outsourcing labor to using personal in academic writing, low cost production centers Thrift: Limiting advertising and RD spend Optimized supply-chain: By lowering inventory and essay sample on abnormal, negotiating with suppliers, companies can substantially improve their profitability and cash flow.

Making your product/service unique by targeting a specific segment of the essay you are what you eat, market is a compelling strategy, especially if: Your customers are not price sensitive The market is competitive Your are targeting a specific niche You can provide a product/service that is not easily copied. You can also achieve differentiation through branding and marketing – for example, Starbucks sells premium coffee at a premium price point, primarily through the strength of their branding and acts sample on abnormal narcolepsy, not through the taste of their coffee. Determining the, optimal price for your products/services will require you to essay sample eating, think through several factors: If you are going shooting for the low cost provider strategy, then you will want to as a science essay, price yourself accordingly. Likewise, if you are going for eating, the luxury end of the market, then a higher price is writing, often times a proxy for quality. How price sensitive are your customers?

If your customers are making their purchase decision primarily based on price, then you will want to be sensitive to this. The price you set must be high enough to over your costs so you can turn a profit. There are, of course, exceptions. For example, you might want to achieve economies of scale by maximizing units sold, or you might be maximizing revenue to achieve dominant market share. There may be regulatory/legal constraints on sample narcolepsy how much you can charge. For example, payday loan vendors are restricted in how much they can charge their customers. Looking at what your competitors charge can give you a understanding of what current customers are accustomed to paying and will likely be willing to online, pay for your products/services. There are price points that consumers are psychologically more accustomed to, such as amounts ending in .99 or .95.

In this section, you move from describing your marketing plan onto sample eating narcolepsy, how you will convey your marketing message to your intended audience. What marketing channels will you utilize to reach your target customers? Depending on your business, traditional media may be an important component of your complete marketing toolbox. These would include television, radio, billboards, flyers, etc. In today’s environment few companies can afford not to have a strong online presence.

There are a myriad of acts essay narcolepsy options available. Each marketing channel must be carefully measured for effectiveness, as online marketing can quickly add up and psycology essay, consume a small business’s entire marketing budget. A website is a key component of essay narcolepsy your digital marketing efforts as it will be the destination in which your online leads will first visit. Some online marketing options include: Search engines (i.e.; Google, Bing) Directories (Yelp, Angies List) Daily deals (Groupon) Email marketing Social media (Facebook, Twitter) Word of mouth marketing is by far the most profitable and as a science essay, powerful marketing channel available to any business. New customers that are referred to your business are more likely to purchase and more likely to continue referring your company. There are ways to boost word of mouth marketing, especially with the sample on abnormal eating narcolepsy, advent of social media. For example, asking a satisfied customer to like your business on online essays Yelp and Facebook will potentially reach hundreds of their contacts, all with one click. Integrating social media into your word of mouth marketing strategy is invaluable for every business. Blogging/Becoming a subject matter expert.

Having a leading voice in your industry will help your business gain credibility from customers, suppliers, partners and competitors. Acts On Abnormal Eating Narcolepsy? You can start by participating on public forums and as a science essay, blogs related to your business and adapting the adage “give more to get more”. How will your products be available? On one end of the spectrum is direct marketing, whereby you sell directly to your customers. Or if you manufacture your products, you might sell through distributors, who in acts essay sample narcolepsy turn sell to retailers, who in - buy essays turn sell to acts essay sample on abnormal eating, consumers. Psycology As A Science? Three common models:

Product is stocked in mass-market distribution channels. Examples include soft drinks, magazines, etc. Product is specialized and sold through specialized channels. Examples include nautical computers and tooling/machinery. Product is acts essay sample on abnormal eating, only sold through an exclusive channel. Examples include luxury products such as high-end motorcycles or designer handbags. The Internet presents an unparalleled opportunity to reach customers directly, as well as working with online channel partners to reach and sell to customers.

Writing the psycology as a essay, Strategy and Implementation Chapter. The strategy and implementation chapter will give you an opportunity to define the key milestones that mark meaningful progress towards your goals. It also includes sections that further elaborate on your competitors. Strategy and Implementation Sections. Milestones SWOT Analysis (optional) Competitive Edge (optional) Strategic Alliances (optional) Milestones are the key events that demonstrate progress is being made , such as completing the company’s first prototype or breaking even. These provide a tangible way to measure the success of the business venture. Milestones are so incredibly important to a business yet are one of those things that can be easily overlooked. Why are milestones so important? Because they are a way to measure meaningful progress of a company that in effect, makes that company less risky (and therefore more valuable).

A new company has an extremely high-risk profile – but as it meets tangible milestones, such as completing a prototype or breaking even, the company’s risk decreases. It becomes more apparent that the venture will succeed. Investors and lenders will be looking at acts essay what milestones your company has reached in order to create a fair valuation. Milestones might include: Assembling company team First working prototype Filing/receiving patent or other IP Securing physical location for store First paying customer Breaking even Turning a profit* *If you can demonstrate not only turning a profit, but also sustaining that profit, then that is a huge milestone. SWOT Analysis is you are, a useful technique for essay sample eating narcolepsy, understanding your company’s strengths and psycology, weaknesses , while identifying both the opportunities open to acts essay sample on abnormal eating narcolepsy, your business and the threats it faces.

Strengths and Weaknesses refer to internal factors in your company, such as: Employees and staff Physical assets such as equipment and paper online shakespeare exploit in macbeth, facilities Financial assets. Opportunities and Threats refer to external factors facing your company, such as: Market trends Regulatory and legal Macroeconomic conditions Competitors. Competitive edge can be bucketed into four primary areas: cost, differentiation, innovation and sample on abnormal eating, operational effectiveness. Are you providing a product/service at a lower cost then your competitors?

This is a straightforward competitive edge that is very difficult to deliver. Providing the lowest cost may require operating on razor thin profit margins or heavy investment in using writing fixed costs in order to achieve economies of acts on abnormal scale. Are you providing a product/service that your competitors are not offering or cannot offer? This is - buy online essays, a common strategy whereby you provide differentiated value in order to better serve customers and/or reach a portion of the market that may be under-served. Are you leapfrogging your competition and acts essay sample eating narcolepsy, providing a notably superior or new product/service? Popularized by the book “Blue Ocean Strategy”, creating new demand in an uncontested market space is a powerful business strategy. Do you provide superior time to market or customer service? For example, your customers may be willing to using personal writing, pay a higher price for better customer service . Nordstrom’s is an example of a company that uses superior customer service as a competitive advantage.

Forging strategic alliances is a commonplace occurrence in essay narcolepsy business. There are a wide variety of alliances you might encounter, with various parties in which you do business. Even if you do not have any alliances, there may be an opportunity for a partnership in the future and that should be included in this section. You might have a supplier who has a disproportionate amount of influence and power of your business. Striking a partnership in this case may decrease those risk factors and provide a competitive advantage over your competitors. You might have a large portion of your revenue coming from several key customers. Inking an exclusive agreement to lock in revenue would, for instance, give you predictable cash flow.

It is not uncommon to partner with competitors under certain circumstances – for acts essay narcolepsy, example, to set standards for the industry or to help further adoption of a technology. For example, Sony and Panasonic partnered together to increase the pronouns, adoption of Blu-ray DVDs. Aligning your brand with another company is frequently used, especially if both brands are targeting the same demographic. For example, Samsung is the essay narcolepsy, official sponsor of the Olympic games and government, will provide free mobile phones to essay sample on abnormal narcolepsy, all Olympic athletes. Upon completing these sections, your strategy and implementation chapter will be finished. Writing the Financial Plan, Statements, and Sales Forecast Chapters. Writing the financial plan, financial statements, and what you eat in secret, sales forecast will be the essay narcolepsy, most difficult part of your entire plan. It requires making a large number of intelligent assumptions about the electronic and development essay, size of the market you can realistically target, and the costs associated with making your product or rendering your services. These sections are the red meat of your plan — these are the chapters that any seasoned angel investor or venture capitalist will dig into to acts sample on abnormal eating narcolepsy, make sure they know they’re making a solid financial investment. Chapter 7: Financial Plan and buy research paper online shakespeare in macbeth, Sales Forecast Sections. Sales Forecast Personnel Plan Budget Cash Flow Assumptions Loans and Investments Starting Balances Historical Financials Key Metrics for Success.

Define the price in which you will sell your products and services, the cost it will take to produce or sell the product/service, and the number of units you will sell. Be conservative when making your estimates on the number of units you will sell, ensuring you have a reasonable methodology when making your forecast. It is sample eating narcolepsy, highly recommended that you first complete the buy research paper online how does exploit the supernatural for dramatic effect in macbeth, following sections as they lay the foundation for defining the sales forecast. Products/Services section: Defines what you will sell and at what price point; also seeks to define the essay narcolepsy, production cost Target Market section: Defines the size of your target market and what quantities you can sell. Tip: Your sales forecast should sync with your Sales and essays, Marketing plan. For example, if you plan on essay sample on abnormal eating narcolepsy hiring several sales people nine months from the buy research how does the supernatural effect in macbeth, start of your business, you should forecast an increase in sales thereafter. This is the price you will sell your products/services. Fixed price: Suitable for most sales forecast modeling Price changes over time: The price of your product/service may increase/decrease in price over time for several reasons: Keep up with inflation Keep up with increased cost of raw materials or components Seasonal product – discount to essay sample eating narcolepsy, offload excess inventory Promote new product – discount upfront to science essay, encourage sales, then increase later. This is the direct cost of acts essay eating producing your product/service (at the unit level). Otherwise known as cost of buy research online how does goods sold (COGS). Fixed costs: Suitable for most sales forecast modeling % of sales: A good way to forecast costs; as sales increase you can set the cost as a % of sales on sample on abnormal eating a sliding scale.

Costs vary each month: The cost of your product/service may increase/decrease in price over time for several reasons: Economy of scale: the more units you produce, the cheaper it becomes to essay what you eat, produce them Bargaining power: the more units you buy from your supplies, the cheaper they become Seasonality: cost of raw materials may fluctuate based on time of year. This is the expected number of units you will sell. My units are constant: Not particularly suitable as most businesses will expect to have some growth over time. Units sold changes over time: The quantity sold of essay eating narcolepsy your product/service may increase over time for several reasons: Growing market share Finding new markets. Sales tax requirements vary by country and by products/services sold. In the government essay, United States, there is no sales tax at the federal level; however, many states levy selective sales tax on acts essay narcolepsy particular goods or services. Check with your state department of taxation if you are required to collect sales tax. If yes, you collect the sales tax from your customers and then remit the tax to the state each year. If the government and development essay, individual assumptions used for each component of the sales forecast is accurate, so will the essay sample, overall sales forecast.

You should be able to explain where each number comes from, citing studies/research that validates your assumptions. The costs of hiring personnel are often the my school essay what, largest expense of any business. In this section, you will enter forecasted employees and contractors you plan to hire. The number of personnel you plan to essay on abnormal eating narcolepsy, hire and at pronouns in academic writing what time is more of an art then a science. Too much staff too soon and you’ll burn through your working capital. Too few staff and you’ll run the risk of alienating your customers and partners when you can’t deliver. A good way to think about your personnel plan is to think about the milestones you want your business to accomplish and essay sample on abnormal eating, what personnel are required to get your business there.

You can always revise your estimates, so start off with your best estimate and come back to essay you eat, this section later. Tweak as needed so that your business model demonstrates profitability within your target time frame. The type of essay sample eating narcolepsy company you are building and the financing required also makes a big difference in your staffing plan. Electronic Government And Development Essay? For example, if you are seeking venture capital that mean you are going to want to acts essay sample eating narcolepsy, hire and electronic government, scale quickly in order to essay on abnormal narcolepsy, generate large revenues. Conversely, if you are seeking debt financing, you want to operate as lean as possible and maximize profitability so you can service your loans. Fixed amount: Suitable for pronouns in academic writing, most situations.

Changes over on abnormal, time: You might want to define a compensation plan for sales personnel that have an annual bonus component, for example. Employee: If choosing employee you will have to consider certain employee taxes and other considerations. Contractor: If selecting contractor, ensure that you are classifying said contractor correctly. In the United States, for example, you are legally required to my school, provide employee-type benefits in certain situations even if you classify the personnel as a contractor. If hiring employees, you will be responsible for additional costs such as (but not limited to) payroll taxes, worker’s compensation and health insurance, paid time off, training and acts essay sample on abnormal eating narcolepsy, travel expenses, vacation and sick leave, pension contributions and compare essay, other benefits. This is referred to the burden rate, which provides a truer picture of acts sample on abnormal total labor costs than payroll costs alone. Psycology As A Science Essay? Burden rate only affects employees and not contractors. If unsure what to enter, 15% is essay sample on abnormal narcolepsy, a fair estimate. Explain the assumptions and methodology used to compare and contrast, define the personnel your business plans to acts sample on abnormal eating narcolepsy, retain, including how you came up with your compensation figures and burden rate.

For example, you might explain that as you plan to personal in academic, hire several sales people to coincide with the release of a new product. Enter expenses you plan on incurring for your business. A good way to make sure you capture majority of your business’s expenses is to think through costs associated with each functional area of essay on abnormal narcolepsy your business, such as product development, marketing and compare zam polishing, operations. Categorize expense into groups, such legal and administrative, rent and leases, and telecommunications. Do not include fixed asset expenses (assets whereby you derive value from for more than 12 months) such as a company van or computers.

You will enter these in the next step. Advertising Expense Amortization Expense Auto Expense Bad Debt Expense Bank Charges Cash Over and Short Commission Expense Depreciation Expense Employee Benefit Program Freight Expense Gifts Expense Insurance – General Interest Expense Professional Fees License Expense Maintenance Expense Meals and Entertainment Office Expense Payroll Taxes Printing Postage Rent Repairs Expense Salaries Expense Supplies Expense Taxes – FIT Expense Utilities Expense Gain/Loss on Sale of Assets. Enter long-term asset expenses here. Acts Essay Sample Narcolepsy? Long-term assets are comprised of two types: tangible and intangible assets. Fixed assets are tangible assets that provide value for more than 12 months, such as a company van or computers. Fixed assets are depreciated over essay you are what you eat, its useful lifetime. This is an accounting method that allows the business to allocate the costs of the asset over acts sample eating, its life by gradually reducing its value. Common fixed assets: Land and Buildings Motor vehicles Furniture Office equipment Fixtures and fittings Plant and machinery. Intangible assets are long-term assets that are not physical in nature. Intangible assets are amortized over its useful life.

These might include: Intellectual property (items such as patents, trademarks, copyrights, business methodologies) Goodwill Brand recognition. Enter other short-term assets here, which most likely will be any prepaid expense that lasts for less than 12 months. Besides prepaid expenses, other current assets also include short-term investments and securities that are likely to turned into cash within a year. A prepaid expense can be described as such: A 12-month office lease is signed with the total lease amount of $12,000 being paid upfront. Classifying this as a regular expense would not be accurate because then the PL Statement and my school essay you are what in secret, Cash Flow Statement would both show the $12,000 as a one-time upfront payment on the month it which it was made. This type of expense is better described as a prepaid expense, since the use of the office is spread out over a 12-month period of time and can be considered an asset on the Balance Sheet that is acts essay eating narcolepsy, expensed over time.

By classifying this as a prepaid expense (or an as a essay amortized short term asset) then the PL Statement would show the sample, $12,000 prepaid expense spread across 12 months at $1,000 each month, while the essay you are you eat, Cash Flow Statement would reflect the $12,000 payment on month in which it was made. Under Assets, the Balance Sheet would then show the amount of Prepaid Lease that is remaining at the end of the accounting period. Enter an acts essay sample narcolepsy estimate for income taxes you expect to pay, which should be a summation of federal, state and local income tax. Do not include other taxes such as property tax (should be entered as a separate expense) or employee-related taxes (this is covered in as a science the Personnel Section as the Burden Rate). As this is narcolepsy, only an electronic government essay estimate, 100% accuracy is not required (if unsure what to enter here, use 20%). Dividends and distributions (for corporations and LLCs/partnerships, respectively) are payments to the company’s shareholders/owners, taken from the company’s profit. Dividends are typically paid out at the end of the fiscal year, while distributions can be given out at the discretion of the owners. You may want to set this to acts essay narcolepsy, zero initially and see how the financials of your business model work out; then you can work backwards and determine how much of psycology as a retained profit you want to essay sample narcolepsy, distribute to owners/shareholders. Here you can explain any regular costs that are associated with running your business. What are the monthly or ongoing costs that you must pay to keep the business up and running? For example, this could be paying monthly utilities and rent expenses for electronic essay, your office space, insurance, or any marketing or advertising costs.

For a start-up, remember that there are always up-front costs or one-time costs associated with getting things started, so be aware of any of these expenses and include them in your budget. Accounts receivable is acts sample on abnormal, defined as sales that the company has made but has yet to collect the government and development, money from the purchaser. Acts Essay Sample Eating? Most companies operate by government and development, allowing some portion of their sales to be on credit. These types of sales are usually made to frequent or special customers who are invoiced periodically, and essay on abnormal, allow them to avoid the hassle of physically making payments as each transaction occurs. And Contrast Essay? You want your accounts receivable to be as low as possible to increase your cash flow. Defining what percentage of your sales will be on credit. You want this percentage to acts essay on abnormal narcolepsy, be as low as possible, while keeping in paper shakespeare exploit for dramatic mind that for some businesses it is preferential to sample on abnormal eating narcolepsy, provide some credit to your best customers.

Defining how long it will take to collect payment. Of the customers that you provide credit to, you need to science, define when they are to pay you back. The faster, the better your cash flow will look like. It is essay sample narcolepsy, typical to provide net-30, which is 30 days. Accounts payable is defined as short-term debt owed to suppliers and banks.

It is to your advantage to negotiate longer payment terms with your suppliers, as it will improve your cash flow. When looking at accounts receivable (what is owed to you) and accounts payable (what you owe), the key thing to in secret, remember is that you want to be paid as soon as possible, and you want to pay others as late as possible (cash on hand is king). Defining what percentage of your purchases will be on credit. You want this percentage to be as high as possible, as that will improve your cash flow. However, ensure you are able to acts essay sample on abnormal eating narcolepsy, pay your vendors on the purchases made on credit. Defining how long it will take to collect incoming payments.

How many days will it take, on average, to collect incoming payments? Select the typical number of days between when you make a credit sale and when the payment arrives. Keep in mind that shortening this period can vastly improve your cash flow. If your business will sell physical products and compare, you plan on keeping inventory on hand, then you need to define how many months of sample on abnormal eating narcolepsy inventory you wish to psycology science, keep on hand. The more months of inventory you hold on hand, the more cash is tied up in inventory. This will affect your cash flow. How much inventory should you carry? The ideal amount varies from industry to industry, and acts sample eating, business to business. A good place to find more information is - buy essays, trade associations for your industry. In order to improve your company’s inventory management, you will need to start by collecting good records on your inventory. Using inventory turnover rate as an indicator.

Inventory Turnover Rate = Costs of acts essay eating narcolepsy Goods Sold (COGS) / average cost of inventory on hand. A low inventory turnover rate means that you may have too much inventory on hand. Understanding and managing cash flow is very important to any business. The time period for electronic government and development essay, credit sales and acts essay sample on abnormal narcolepsy, payments may depend on your suppliers or your industry. Paying and getting paid later rather than earlier can entirely change your cash flow projections. You can utilize this section to explain any assumptions about cash flow, including details on the time period in which you will make and receive payments. How did you come to these assumptions and how will it affect your business?

When taking out a loan, you borrow an electronic government and development essay amount of money (principal) from acts essay sample eating, a lender, and are obligated to science, pay back at acts essay on abnormal a later time (usually in installments). You will typically pay interest on the loan. Pronouns Writing? If you are seeking a loan then enter the amount, as you want to forecast the financials assuming you have secured the loan. Personal vs Commercial Loans. For many small businesses, taking out acts on abnormal eating a personal loan to finance growth is commonplace. These might include credit cards, home equity line of credit (HELOC), and installment loans. Psycology Essay? If you have an existing small business, commercial loans can be obtained, which are based on a variety of factors.

Secured vs Unsecured Loans. A secured loan is a loan in which you pledge some asset (equipment, property, etc.) as collateral. Unsecured loans (credit cards, personal loans) are not secured against essay on abnormal eating a borrower’s assets. Interest rates will be higher for unsecured loans versus secured loans, for government and development, obvious reasons. If you have a pre-existing loan, then you can specify those details in the Starting Balances section. A line of credit is essay sample eating, similar to a loan with the difference being that interest is not charged on the part of the line of credit that is unused, and the borrower can draw on the line of credit at any time that he or she needs to. If you are seeking a line of credit then enter the amount, as you want to forecast the and contrast essay, financials assuming you have secured the line of credit. The line of credit may be classified as a demand loan, which means that any outstanding balance will have to be paid immediately at the financial institution’s request. Investments include injections of cash into the business from acts essay sample, you, other shareholders or owners, or investors. This typically refers to equity investments where investors contribute cash to the business in and development essay exchange for equity (ownership).

In this section, you can describe how your business will be funded. Acts Essay Sample On Abnormal Eating Narcolepsy? If you are a startup, it is buy research paper shakespeare exploit effect in macbeth, likely that the money you make from sales will not cover all your business expenses so you may need additional sources of funding, such as taking out a loan, receiving investors’ capital, credit lines, or other ways of essay sample borrowing money. What type of funding will you acquire? At what point in your plan are you expecting these funds? For existing businesses only. The starting balances will be used to adjust the balance sheet to take into account your company’s financial history. Important: all starting balances should be entered as they are at the start of your plan. Enter starting balances for assets: Cash Accounts Receivable Inventory Other current assets Long term assets Accumulated depreciation.

Enter starting balances for liabilities: Enter starting balance for Capital and Earnings: Enter your Recent Sales: One month before start date Two months before start date Three months before start date Four months before start date Five months before start date Six months before start date. If you are an existing business, you can enter past financial data here. Compare Essay? This is optional and acts eating narcolepsy, will be used to calculate historical financial ratios in using personal pronouns the Financial Statements section. For each year of your company history , include: $ Sales $ Gross profit $ Income from operations $ Net profit $ Current assets $ Current liabilities $ Inventory $ Total assets $ Total liabilities $ Total owner equity. Every business model has several key metrics that management can use to see if the business is healthy. For example, a restaurant might use the number of tables it can turn per night and acts essay eating narcolepsy, the average revenue per dinner. My School Essay You Are In Secret? Think about what levers make the most impact to your business. You will want to continuously track and monitor these metrics to ensure your business model is working.

Chapter 8: Financial Statements Sections. Profit and Loss Statements Balance Sheet Cash Flow Statement Financial Ratios. The Profit Loss (i.e.; income statement) shows your revenue, expenses, and profit. It is the acts essay sample narcolepsy, most common of the three reports as it provides a view into the company’s projected “bottom line”. The statement here is - buy online, a read-only display, calculated automatically from the information you entered in the Sales Forecast, Budget, and essay on abnormal eating, Personnel Plan sections. Writing? If you wish to edit or change any information, you may do so by going back to those sections. The statement here will update automatically. The balance sheet gives a snapshot of your company’s financial position at a given point in time, usually the last day of a fiscal period. It is called a balance sheet because assets (what you own) will always equal the acts narcolepsy, sum of your liabilities (what you owe) and stockholder’s equity (your investments from stockholders plus money that your business earned that is put back into running your business). The balance sheet here is a read-only display. If you wish to change the balance sheet, you can do so by going back to the builder in using personal pronouns writing the Financial Plan section.

If you are an acts on abnormal eating existing business, you have the option of personal in academic writing adding starting balances under the Financial Plan section. The cash flow statement displays the cash inflows and outflows from acts, your operating, investing and financing activities. Rather than providing an buy research online how does the supernatural for dramatic effect overview like the balance sheet, the essay, cash flow statement will measure the change in cash during a period. In other words, how much money did you start and online, end up with? The statement here is a read-only display. Sample Eating Narcolepsy? You can go back to edit the sections in the Financial Plan section in order to change the accounts affected in the cash flow statement. The Financial Ratios section gives a general overview of the health of your business.

The report here is a read-only display. If you wish to change any of the information, you may do so by online, editing the relevant financial information you’ve entered previously. The ratios here will update automatically. The Liquidity Analysis shows how solvent your company is, or how easily convertible to cash is the company in case. This is important in sample on abnormal eating determining the ability of the business to meet its obligations, or paying off what it owes in debt. The Profitability Analysis shows the overall performance of the company in its ability to make a profit.

The ratios show how much of sales revenue is actual profit after taking costs and expenses into account. The Debt Ratio shows how much of the business’s assets are financed by debt and as a essay, how much of the business’s assets are financed by stockholders’ equity. The Investment Measures show ROI (Return on acts essay Investment) which is the percentage of the return (net profit) of the essay you are you eat, business divided by the cost of the investment. The most common method of calculating ROI is to divide net profit by total assets. Finishing these chapters represents a massive achievement in completing your business plan. It is by far the acts essay eating, most difficult chapter, as it requires doing somewhat complicated math to generate accurate financial statements. In all likelihood, you will need to hire an essays expert or accountant to help you create an essay narcolepsy accurate and detailed plan that adheres to how does shakespeare exploit effect in macbeth, realistic outcomes.

To finish it off, you’ll need to essay eating narcolepsy, write an personal in academic writing appendix and a glossary of terms. Your appendix will be a more detailed version of the financial statements detailed in this chapter, and your glossary of terms will simply define the terms of your business that an investor may not understand. Upon including those chapters, your plan will be complete. Feeling inspired to start a business, but don’t know how to write a plan? We have a sample database of on abnormal narcolepsy plans that you can look through to learn the compare and contrast zam polishing, different chapters and acts on abnormal eating narcolepsy, sections necessary to attract equity investments and loans. Although our examples are specific to each industry, keep in mind that every plan will be unique depending on your location, your customer base, and your own vision, so these will only science essay serve as a starting point for you and acts essay eating, your dream.

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Create your free. Business Plan Template document in only 5-10 minutes! Copyright 2017 Legal Templates LLC. Legal Templates LLC is not a lawyer, or a law firm and does not engage in the practice of law. Legal Templates cannot and does not provide legal advice or legal representation. All information, software and services provided on the site are for informational purposes and self-help only and are not intended to be a substitute for a lawyer or professional legal advice. Use of this site is acts on abnormal eating, subject to our Terms of Use. Preview Document - Business Plan Template.

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